Martin Luther (When did he nail on the Cathedral’s door his thesis?)Martin Luther, a priest and professor at the University of Wittenberg, was very angry when he heard of Tessel’s arrival in the area. On 31 October 1517, he nailed a proclamation called the Ninety-five Theses to the door of the University Church at Wittenberg.
First CrusadeIn the 11th century, The Seljuk Turks conquered Jerusalem and began a persecution with Christians.
In 1095, Pope Urban II publicly called for a crusade to aid Eastern Christians and recover the holy lands.
Then, Jerusalem was captured from the Turks and Godfrey as a ruler.He killed women and children and a fury turned against the Jews in Europe, they were plundered and ill-treated by kings and barons.
Later, Crusaders held their own and Godfrey died.He was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin.
Second CrusadeThis crusade was led by Louis VII of France and it was failed to recover ground lost to the Muslim reconquest. Saladin, the leader of Muslims, had a battle with Guy de Lusignan.
Crusaders of Jerusalem fought that day and Guy himself remained a captive in Saladin's hands.
There was a call for another Crusade and Henry II had meant to take it. He imposed a tax, the Saladin Tithe, to pay the expenses of the crusade. However, Henry II´s death cut his plans and left the task to his son, Richard.
Henry II’s reignHenry II, who was the first of eight Angevin, inherited an empire on the Continent. He was married Eleonor of Aquitaine.
Henry II was in England only thirteen of the thirty-five years of his reign.His attention to England's legal system made his reign noteworthy in the development of the fundamental features of common law.
After Stephen's reign, Henry's first task was to restore order and authority in England. He regained Crown lands and ordered the demolition of unlicensed castles.
Oxford's University creation
Thomas Becket's murderFour knights took the law into their own hands and murdered Becket on the altar steps of Canterbury.
Third CrusadeThis crusade was led by Richard I of England, Frederick Barbarossa(the Holy Roman emperor) and Philip Augustus of France, hoped to retake Jerusalem from Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
Richard was successful in his siege of Acre, but returned to England when his forces insufficient to attack Jerusalem.
Other Crusades were sidetracked into sacking Constantinople or fighting the Albigenses, the Christian heretics in France.
Gradually, the Crusades lost their appeal and became expired.
King Richard's reignHe did little for England.Richard was only for six months of his ten-year reign , and then chiefly to raise money to continue his fighting abroad.
King John's reignOften called England`s "Worst King" .John was a victim of his own character and of circumstances.Although, he was clever and courageous.
RenaissanceRennaissance is a french word. It mean "rebirth". The Ranaissance began in the towns of Italy. Roman artists, scientists and writers influenced by Greek ideas. They had become skilled observers of the natural world around them, and had become experts in studying animals,plants,the human body or the stars and planet.
100 Years' WarThe term "Hundred Years' War" continues in use. The underlying cause of the war was the heritage of hostility resulting from English possessions in France. The French King Charles VI was insane and the country was sharply divided between rival factions of Burgundians. Henry allied himself with the Burgundians and landed in France with a well-equipped army, his objective was the union of France and England under one crown.
Period:1343toOct 25, 1400
Geoffrey ChaucerHe outstanding English poet before Shakespeare and His "The Canterbury Tales" ranks as one of the greatest poetic works in English. He also contributed importantly in the second half of the 14th century to the management of public affairs as courtier, diplomat, and civil servant.In that career he was trusted and aided by three successive kings: Edward III, Richard II and Henry IV.
Black DeathIt is a bubonic plague, which had struck England from Europe. It wiped out at least 1/3 of the population. It was carried by black rats and spread by fleas that they carried and was followed by a pneumonic plague which Spread by direct human contagion. This plague reappeared for three Centuries and it halted the Hundred Years' War for two years and broke up society by the flight of the privileged from the towns.
Canterbury TalesChaucer called England's first major poet, blended superb literary technique and masterful storytelling. He provided the best account of contemporary life in his 'Canterbury Tales'. The conversation of his pilgrims ranged across the whole spectrum of medieval life,from otherworldliness to the bawdy capers of the knight and the Miller .Throughout the tales the sense of religious dissatisfaction and unabashed earthinees foreshadowed the Renaissance and Reformation eras to come.
Joan of Arc's execution
Cambridge College's creationHenry VI founded King's College Cambridge in 1440.
Eton Grammar School's creationThe fifteenth century saw a significant growth in new colleges and endowments and in the expansion of old schools. About two hundred grammar schools were in existence, including Eton, founded by Henry VI un 1440.
Printing Press inventionTwo German churchmen set up the first printing press in Italy at a monastery near Rome in 1465.
War of the rosesTwo rival English Houses with private liveried armies fought each other for the next thirty years for the throne and for political power. Tradition has labeled this dynastic civil feud the Wars of the Roses, from the white rose emblem of the House of York and the red rose of the House of Lancaster.