Jul 1, 1455
Cadamosto reached the mouth of the Gambia river in West AfricaAlvise Cadamosto reaches the mouth of the Gambia River, which King Henery has heard stories of gold there from previously captured slaves. apon sailing up the river, he as ambushed by Mandinka natives by canoe and spear bombardment. he was forced to retreat back to sea. this would call for a return journy up the Gambia River, this time making peaceful contact with the Mandinka and discovering Mali.
Aug 3, 1492
Columbus sails for IndiaColumbus departs from Palos de la Frontera in hope of finding a suitable trade route between Europe and Asia. He departs with the ships Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. The ships were provided by the Palos inhabitants by order of the spanish crown. columbus will never reach India, and will instead discover the Americas, beginning the European Exploration and then later colonization of the Americas.
Oct 12, 1492
Columbus reaches San SalvadorColumbus discovers land in what is now known as the Bahamas, naming the island that he encountered San Salvador. He meets native groups Lucian, Taino, and Arawak. They are peaceful people and he sees the natives from then on as easily conquerable and weak. He writes that they have no religion and that he should convert them to Christianity. He brought back near seven native americans with him to Spain, starting a trend of exploration in Europe.
Jul 8, 1497
Da Gama sets leaves to sail around Cape Good HopeDa Gama was one of the first explorers to round Cape Good Hope. This was part of the reason that he was succesful in reaching India. In order to gain the trust of the sultan of Mozambique, Da Gama and his crew impersonated muslims. When the local population began to suspect their deception after Da Gama was unable to supply a gift for their Sultan, a mob forced them to flee. Da Gama Fired his cannons into the city as an act of defiance.
May 21, 1498
Da Gama becomes the first European to reach IndiaDa Gama, the Portegese explorer, sailed from Lisbon on July 1497 in hope of establishing a trade route between Europe and India. He first stopped at Malindi on the east coast of Africa. There, he meets an Indian merchant who aids him in sailing the Indian ocean. He arrives at Calicut on the Malabar coast. This allowed for the portugese to avoid the Medateranian and Arabian seas and still trade with India.
May 9, 1500
Gaspar discovers GreenlandGaspar Corte-real reaches Greenland beleiving it to be Asia, but chooses not to land.The king of Portugaul sent Gaspar to discover a Northwest passage to Asia along with new lands to colonize. Gaspar returned in 1501 with his brother Miguel. they were forced to change course southwards due to frozen sea, and landed on what was believed to be Labrador and Newfoundland. Gaspar sent his brother back with sixty newly cought natives to be sold as slaves. Gaspar was lost and never seen again.
Sep 20, 1519
Magellan sets sail to circumnavigate the worldThe Spanish crown hired Magellan to find a westward route to the spice islands. Magellan avoided the Portugese on his journey because the Treaty of Tordesillas reserved the Portugese discovered route for only them. Magellan departs with five ships and a crew of between 235 and 270. Only 18 of the original crew will return on their smaller ship, Victoria, without Magellan who died fighting native Philippine wariors. His voyage led to the discovery of the Straight of Magellan and timezones.
Nov 8, 1519
Cortes reaches TenochtitlanCortes departs from the colony in Cuba in Febuary, 1519, against the orders of the governor, with 11 ships, 13 horses, 500 men, and a small amount of cannons. Cortes learns of the Aztec empire from the conquered Tabascans. Cortez makes alliances with natives along the way to the city. When he arrrives in August, 1519, massacred the nobility there and burned part of the city. Moctezuma greeted them peacefully , only willing to wait lung enough to learn their weaknesses before destroying them.
Jul 1, 1520
Cortes is forced to flee TenochtitlanCortes had been welcomed by Moctezuma into the heart of the Aztec empire, only to learn that spaniards had ben killed by Aztecs while helping Totonacs. Cortes takes Moctezuma hostage in his pallace, using him as a puppet ruler. The governor of Cuba sent troops to reurn Cortes to Cuba in April, 1520. Cortes defeats them and uses them as reinforcements. Rebellion sparks in the Aztec empire due to a massacre. He is chased out of the city and Moctezuma is killed by the rioting Aztecs.
Aug 13, 1521
Cortes defeats the Aztec nationCortes cuts off Tenochtitlan from supplies and allies and organizes the seige of Tenochtitlan. Cortes destroys the city. He captures Cuauhtemoc, the ruler of Tenochtitlan, destroying the Aztec empire. Cortes claims it in the name of Spain and renames it Mexico City.