Civilizations Ancient

  • 2600 BCE


    The Maya developed their first civilization in the Preclassic period. Scholars continue to discuss when this era of Maya civilization began. Maya occupation at Cuello has been carbon dated to around 2600 BC
  • 2500 BCE


    Pre-Olmec cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE
  • 1600 BCE

    Olmec emerged

    Olmec emerged
    but by 1600–1500 BCE, early Olmec culture had emerged, centered on the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz.
  • 1400 BCE

    The beginnings of olmec

    The beginnings of olmec
    The beginnings of Olmec civilization have traditionally been placed between 1400 and 1200 BCE.
  • 950 BCE

    San Lorenzo monuments

    A wholesale destruction of many San Lorenzo monuments also occurred near 950 BCE
  • 900 BCE

    La Venta

    La Venta
    The first Olmec center, San Lorenzo, was all but abandoned around 900 BCE at about the same time that La Venta rose to prominence.
  • 650 BCE


    He Zapotecs developed a calendar and a logosyllabic system of writing that used a separate glyph to represent each of the syllables of the language. This writing system is thought to be one of the first writing systems of Mesoamerica and a predecessor of those developed by the Maya, Mixtec and Aztec civilizations. There is debate as to whether Olmec symbols, dated to 650 BC
  • 400 BCE

    La Venta was abandoment

    La Venta became the most prominent Olmec center, lasting from 900 BCE until its abandonment around 400 BCE
  • 350 BCE

    The Olmec heartland dropped precipitously

    Between 400 and 350 BCE, the population in the eastern half of the Olmec heartland dropped precipitously, and the area was sparsely inhabited until the 19th century.
  • 500

    Cloud People

    The Zapotecs, known as the 'Cloud People', dwelt in the southern highlands of central Mesoamerica, specifically, in the Valley of Oaxaca, which they inhabited from the late Preclassic period to the end of the Classic period (500 BCE - 900 CE)
  • 1427


    The Aztec Empire was a tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan that extended its power throughout Mesoamerica in the late postclassic period. It originated in 1427 as a triple-alliance between the city-states Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, who allied to defeat the Tepanec state of Azcapotzalco, which had previously dominated the Basin of Mexico.
  • 1519

    The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

    The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, beginning in February 1519, was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
  • 1519

    The Spanish campaign

    The Spanish campaign began in February 1519, following the Spanish arrival in Yucatán in 1517
  • 1521

    Aztecs and Hernan

    In 1521 Hernán Cortés, along with a large number of Nahuatl speaking indigenous allies, conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztec Triple Alliance under the leadership of Hueyi Tlatoani Moctezuma II
  • 1521

    The Spanish campaign declared victorious

    The Spanish campaign declared victorious on August 13, 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by Hernán Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured the emperor Cuauhtemoc and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire.
  • The law enacted by Philip II

    In the Philippines, the encomienda was granted also to the local nobles, through the law enacted by Philip II, on 11 June 1594.
  • The colony of Virginia

    John Smith, founder of the colony of Virginia, 1607
  • The colony of New Netherlands

    Founded in 1624 by the Dutch, the colony of New Netherlands came under British rule forty years later and was renamed New York.
  • Charles I

    Soon after Charles I ascended the throne in 1625, Puritan leaders in England were subjected to what they viewed as increasing persecution.
  • The last Maya city

    the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, and a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city in 1697.
  • The encomienda system did eventually

    The encomienda system did eventually come to a legal end in 1720, when the crown made a new attempt at eradicating the institution. The encomenderos were then required to pay remaining encomienda laborers for their work.
  • The Mexican War of Independence

    The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808
  • The Mexican War of Independence

    The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808
  • The Grito de Dolores

    The Grito de Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810
  • The Mexican War of Independence

    The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
  • Three Guarantees

    To the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
  • History of the Conquest of Mexico

    His History of the Conquest of Mexico, first published in 1843, remains an engaging narrative of the conquest, based on a large number of sources copied from the Spanish archives
  • Díaz entered politics

    Díaz entered politics following the expulsion of the French in 1867
  • "Genuinely national revolution."

    Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a "genuinely national revolution."Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession
  • Zazacatla

    Also, in 2007, archaeologists unearthed Zazacatla, an Olmec-influenced city in Morelos.