North and South America-The World before the Opening of the Atlantic (Chapter 1)
North America-First Migration to the Americas
The Paleo-Indians crossed the Bering Land Bridge into Alaska. This migration took place for a long time. The Bering Land Bridge got exposed because the sea level dropped.
North America-Early Societies
The earliest people in North America were hunter gatherers. Although it was less populated, North America had many complex Societies long before Europeans reached the continent.
Period: 1500 BCE to 1300
The early Anasazi lived in pueblos, aboveground houses made of a heavy clay called adobe. The walls that they built was very strong and it protected them from many enemies.
Period: 1200 BCE to 400 BCE
Mesoamerica-Olmec and Maya
The Olmec are recognized for their use of stone in architecture and sculpture. Like the Olmec, the Maya grew crops and stayed in small villages.
Period: 1000 BCE to
North America-Mound Builders
Several farming services developed in the eastern part of North America after 1000 BC. The Hopewell lived along the Mississippi, Ohio, and lower Missouri River valleys.
West Africa-West Africa's Great Kingdoms
The trade used to be ran by the Berbers, a group of people from northern Africa. The West Africans did not profit much. But things changed after the three great kingdoms came to gain control of valuable trade routes in West Africa.
Period: 300 to 1500
West Africa-Kingdom of Ghana
The Soninke got threatened. Therefore, the Soninke family all gather together and that made Ghana.
In the Middle Ages, the towns were small, but it soon changed. But unfortunately a disease, known as the Black Death, spread across Europe, killing an estimated 25 million people.
North America-Viking Sailors Reach North America
The vikings sailors were the first ones to reach North America. Vikings were skilled sailors and they invented a ship called longship and it is curved at the sides.
Period: 1100 to 1500
The Aztecs were very fierce warriors and their fighting ability was a key to their success. They conquered many places, making them the strongest state in Mesoamerica.
Renaissance means "rebirth" and it refers to the middle ages period. Love of art and education was a key feature of the Renaissance. The Renaissance focused on the importance of people rather than religion. This is called humanism.
Europe-A Sea Route to Asia
Portugese explorers set out to find new lands. They used an astrolabe, a device that will be able to navigate the ships by charting the position of stars. They also created a advanced ship called the Caravel, that allowed ships to sail against the wind.
Period: 1400 to 1500
The empire started small but slowly became a very big empire that was a home to 12 million people. They were known for their art and big buildings.
Period: 1400 to
Americas-New Empires in the Americas (Chapter 2)
Aug 3, 1492
Americas-Columbus Sails across the Atlantic
Christoper Columbus, a sailor from Italy, was convinced he could reach Asia by crossing across Atlantic.
Europe-Search for a Northwest Passage
Europeans wanted to find a Northwest Passage, a water route through North America that would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They then send explorers to find it. They tried many times but their trips were not successful. At the end, no one was successful to find the Northwest Passage.
Europe-Events in Europe
Disagreements about religions costs conflicts to Europe. And these conflicts led to wars.
Spain-The Slave Trade
Enslavement was a horrible experience for the Africans. The Africans was treated like nothing and being sold to the Europeans by other Africans who profited. The Middle Passage was a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean that enslaved Africans were forced to endure. They were chained and crammed together in small spaces. The enslaved Africans were killed from disease spreading in the ship and dying from malnutrition. The slave trade led to African Diaspora.
The Spanish Conquistadors, Spanish soldiers, was sent to sail to Mexico. Moctezuma ruled the Aztec Empire. The Spanish saw that Aztec is a good opportunity for more gold and silver. They also wanted to convert the Aztecs to Christians. A woman named Malintzin helped Cortes fight and win the Aztecs.
Americas-The Need for a New Labor Force
European diseases killed a lot of Native Americans and their population became very few. Because there were nobody to work for them. They were in need of slaved to work at the plantation.
England-Pilgrims and Puritans
A protestant group called the Puritans wanted to purify, reform the Anglican Church. The Pilgrims left England to escape from persecution. The Pilgrims were immigrants in the Netherlands. But the Pilgrims were not happy because their children had to learn Dutch language and culture.
Virginia-Settlement in Jamestown
A company of English Merchants asked King James 1 for the right to found, or establish, a settlement. And the King granted them Virginia.
England-The English Colonies
Jamestown was doing better under John Smith, who took over the colony and built a fort. In order for people to work harder, he forced them to and those who work hard get food as reward.
North America-New York and New Jersey
The Dutch founded the New Netherlands in 1613 as a trading post for exchanging furs with the Iroquois.
North America-Colonial Governments
All the English Colonies in North America had their own governments. The English Monarch had authority over all the colonies.
Spain-Spanish Treatment of Native Americans
The Native Americans was forced to do labor without rest and much food by the Spanish. They were also told to work in plantations.
New England-French and Indian War
Both French and Indians attacked each other brutally. But many Indians died.
The Society Of Friends, or the Quakers, made up one of the largest religious group in New Jersey. Quakers did not follow formal religious practices and they dressed plainly. They believed the equality of men and women before God.
New England-Great Britain Raises Taxes
Great Britain had won the French and Indian War. They wanted to raise the taxes but many people disagree with it and cost many conflicts.
England-The Intolerable Acts
The British Prime Minister set rules and laws to punish Boston for their acts.
Libya-Africa's new slave trade
Yusuf, a 24 year old Nigerian had been sold to a slave market and being treated badly. It is just like the slave trade from many years ago.
Malaysia-New Tourism Tax
Another tax raising is going on in Malaysia and it makes tourists pay more money when they come to Malaysia.
US-First Nauru refugees leave for US resettlement
The first 52 refugees were accepted for resettlement in the US. They have been held on and had nowhere to go for many years.