Age of Exploration to Independence

  • Period: 1800 BCE to 800

    The Maya Civilization

    The Maya lived in northern Guatemala in the El Petén region. The Mayans were builders and made the cities Copán and Tikal. The Maya also created an accurate calendar that the Toltec and the Aztecs adapted. Spanish almost completely conquered the Maya empire, but they managed to survive and still exist as a distinct culture today.
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 600

    The Olmec Civilization

    The Olmec lived in the forests of Veracruz and Tabasco area. They built three cities: La Venta, San Lorenzo, Laguna de Los Cerros. The Olmec mysteriously ceased to exist, but scholars think that warfare, environmental degradation, and overpopulated were factors to their disappearance.
  • 1095

    Pope Urban III Calls for the First Crusade in the Holy Land

    The people involved in the Church were high-standing advisors to the king. Monks and priests were high advisors and influenced the king's actions greatly.
  • 1200

    Europe is a Farming Economy

    Feudalism allows people receive their food by farming. Trade has not been promoted yet to sustain the economy.
  • Period: 1200 to 1521

    The Aztec

    The Aztec lived in the Mexico City area and built their city Tenochtitlán in Lake Texcoco. The Aztecs also built different pyramids in their capital city Tenochtitlán. The Aztecs met the Spanish around the 1500's and disappeared a century later.
  • 1271

    Marco Polo Travels to the Middle East

    The Polos are a successful merchant family. They are on a trading trip to the Middle East. Marco Polo travels with his father and learns about the art of trade.
  • 1289

    The Crusades End

    The Crusades for the Holy Land have been going on for almost 200 years. New trade routes have opened up from the Crusades, and Europe has started focusing on trading using these new routes.
  • 1293

    The Polos Journey Home

    It has been 22 years since the Polos first ventured out to the Middle East to trade valuables. Finally, they start to trek home by sea with their treasures.
  • 1298

    Marco Polo is Imprisoned and Starts Writing His Book

    Marco Polo is imprisoned. He meets a wise man also imprisoned. The wise man says for him to write down his great travels in a book for people to read. This is how the world learned of Marco Polo's adventures.
  • Period: 1300 to

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance is a time of great progress and discovery. Europeans discover new cultures, create new inventions, and rekindle a thirst for knowledge and learning.
  • Period: 1400 to 1532

    The Inca Civilization

    The Inca had lots of territory, from Ecuador to Bolivia. The Inca made their capital Cuzco, Peru, and they created a government of famers. They also had a system of roadways that had relay runners running with messages. The Inca continue to exist in Peru today.
  • 1415

    Portuguese Capture The Fortress of Cueta in Africa

    Before capturing this African fortress, the Portuguese had never explored the vast continent of Africa or knew what fortunes were there. They set up trading posts and collected precious minerals like gold and silver.
  • 1419

    Portuguese Discover the Madeira Islands

    Prince Henry "the Navigator" funded many people, from inventors to explorers to scientists. When he funded explorers, it helped them reach and discover more islands and territories to claim like the Madeira Islands.
  • 1427

    Portuguese Discover the Azores Islands

    Prince Henry funded more explorers and they discovered the Azores Islands shortly after the discovery of the Madeira Islands.
  • 1434

    Portuguese Ship Finally Sails Around the Cape of Africa

    The Portuguese made many attempts to sail around the Cape of Africa. There were 16 total voyages. Only one voyage was successful, a ship that Prince Henry "the Navigator" sent.
  • 1440

    Johann Gutenberg Invents the Printing Press

    He uses a Chinese block printing technique that was introduced by Marco Polo with a press that is used for making wine and olive oil. The printing press is a significant invention that changes communication and Europe forever.
  • 1469

    Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Unify Catholic Spain

    Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Unify Catholic Spain
    King Ferdinand || and Queen Isabella marry and unite Spain under Christianity. Their goal is to spread Christianity to the rest of the world.
  • 1488

    Bartolomeu Días Almost Leads Portugal to India

    Since Prince Henry's death, Bartolomeu Días steps up as acting leader of the expeditions. His team makes it to Eastern Africa, and Bartolomeu wants to finish the mission and sail to India, but his crew refuses and steers the ship back to Portugal. The cape that they conquered is named "The Cape of Good Hope" because of their rising spirits as they were so close to achieving their goal.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Christopher Columbus Lands on Hispaniola

    Christopher Columbus Lands on Hispaniola
    Christopher Columbus is an explorer sent by King Ferdinand || and Queen Isabelle to spread Christianity throughout India and Asia. Searching for India, he makes landfall on Hispaniola- an island not discovered yet. He claims the land in the name of Spain and accidentally discovers the Americas.
  • 1519

    Hernán Cortés Invades the Aztec Civilzations

    An explorer called Hernán Cortés invaded the Aztec Civilization in 1519 and later conquered the Aztec in 1521. Some of the tactics he used were to gather information about the Aztec leader Montezuma through Aztec translators and gathered allies to help him in his conquest.
  • Jul 26, 1529

    Francisco Pizarro Invades the Inca Civilization

    In the year 1529, Francisco had to return to Spain from the New World to receive approval from the Spanish crown to invade and conquer the Inca because he was not supposed before. He was approved, and he marched onward in his plans of conquering the Inca empire.
  • 1532

    Pizarro Conquers the Inca Civilization

    After the Inca were ravaged by civil war, disease, and constant attacks of the Spanish, they fell as an empire, people, and culture.
  • Thomas Hobbes Finishes Writing his book The Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes' famous book The Leviathan showed his perspective of people and the importance of the control of the European government.
  • John Locke Finishes Writing his book The Second Treatise on Government

    John Locke's book The Second Treatise on Government showed his perspective of people and the way that government should be which is that people should be free to choose and that when people have an equal say and position, is the way that things should be.
  • The United States Declared Independence

    Even though Britain won the Seven Year War against France and gained their old territories which are present day India and Canada, they were still in great debt from the war. They decided to make up for the debt by taxing their colonists in America. The colonists were angered and looked to the ideas of Enlightenment. They rebelled and started the Revolutionary War. The colonists won and declared independence from Britain.
  • France Write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

    Since France lost the Seven Year War and their colonies, they were in great debt and taxed their people like the British did. The people of France demanded equality and started The French Revolution in a fight for equality. France then started writing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen based on the American Declaration of Independence.
  • Haiti Gains Independence

    The former leader of the Hatian Revolution, Toussaint L'Ouverture was imprisoned while one of his generals led the rebellion to victory as France tried to regain the colony Saint-Dominigue in present-day Haiti.
  • Simón Bolívar Begins Venezuelan Independence Movement

    Simón Bolívar was a pure Spanish man born in Venezuela, and he returned to his home country from Spain to start the Admirable Campaign that would help the movement towards independence.
  • Bolívar Liberates and Unites Gran Columbia

    Bolívar does not stop in liberating just Venezuela; he continues to free the countries of present-day Columbia, Panamá, and Ecuador and earns his title, Simón Bolívar, the Liberator. He calls his nation including the countries of Venezuela, Columbia, Panamá, and Ecuador Gran Columbia.
  • José de San Martín Frees Peru and Southern America

    José de San Martín was a pure Spanish man born in Argentina, and he was a highly respected military leader loyal to the Spanish crown until he quit the army and went back to Argentina to help liberate it and other colonies like Chile and Perú. He was victorious and gave Perú to Bolívar before spending the rest of his life traveling Europe until his death.
  • Mexico Gains Independence

    Father Hidalgo was a priest in the colony of present-day Mexico, and he gave his famous Grito de Dolores (Cry of Delores) speech to the people of Bajío to stand up against their oppressors and the Spanish government in the name of God. They ultimately failed in their attempt when Father Hidalgo was captured and executed. Even though his rebellion failed, it inspired others to rise up and fight for their independence which they won years after.