Meso

Classic-Era Culture and Society in Mesoamerica, 600-1500

  • Period: 600 BCE to 1000 BCE

    Tiwanaku and Wari

    -Tiwanaky and Wari control Peruvian highlands
    Tiwanaky
    -Located near the Titicaca basin
    -Largest population 30,000-70,000 peoples
    -Had major influence on the Inca like: architecture, sculpture, management, and roads
    -The focal point was the Akapana Temple
    -Collapsed because of attacks from Amymara Kingdoms
    Wari
    -Was located in modern day Peru
    -Capital Huari
    -Controlled land by having provincial capitals
    -Empire was connected by an extensive road network
    -Had influence on Inca in later years.
  • Period: 100 to 700

    Moche

    -Two most known structures is the Temple of the Sun and the Temple of the Moon
    -Evidence that Moche wasn't just a political and ceremonial center it was also a large city.
    -Had extensive agriculture
    -Unknown reason for decline
    -Some reasons could be: earthquakes, drought, and flooding.
  • Period: 100 to 500

    Hopewell

    -East-central are of North America
    -Were in Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Pennsylvania, and New York
    -Were Mound Builders
  • Period: 250 to 900

    Maya

    -Controlled all territory from southern Mexico, Guatemala, and northern Belize
    -Main agriculture was corn, beans and squash
    -Built many ceremonial centers
    -Became very involved with building stones and architecture
    -Advanced in irrigation and terracing
    -Developed hieroglyphic writing and had a very important calendar
    -Many of their cities were abandons in 900 CE
  • Period: 600 to 900

    Teotihuacan

  • Period: 650 to 750

    Teothihuacan Destroyed

    -Unclear what forces brought about the collapse of Teotihuacan about 650 CE
    -Pictorial evidence form murals shows city's final decades were violent
    -Overwhelmed militarily by a nearby rival city
    -Now uncovered evidence of conflict withing the ruling elite
    -Mismanagement of resources
    -Temples in the city canter were pulled down and religious images defaced
    Elite palaces were burned and many residents were killed.
  • Period: 700 to 1200

    Anasazi Culture

    -Located somewhere in modern: Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah
    -Now modern Pueblo tribes
    -Ancestral Pueblo history is normally divided into six developmental periods: Basketmaker II, Baksetmaker III, Pueblo I, Pueblo II, Pueblo III and Pueblo IV
  • Period: 800 to 1500

    Mississippian culture

    -Located in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.
    -Agriculture was based on corn
    -There was a central ceremonial plaza was the main part of the town
    -They worked with copper, shell, stone, wood, and clay
    -Declined when the European explorers entered the area
  • Period: 900 to 1168

    Toltecs

    -Dominated the state centered Tula in Mexico
    -Name meaning "urbanite"
    -In 900 CE the Toltec's burned down the city of Teotihuacan
    -Had a number of small states within the large empire
    -Started the rise of militarism in Mesoamerica
    -Ended because of invasions from the nomadic Chichimec
  • Period: 900 to 1470

    Chimu

    -Largest and most important political system in Peru before the Inca.
    -Distinctive pottery
    -Conquest from Piura to Casma and Paramonga
    -Large scale irrigation system
    -Culture based on agriculture, because of great works in irrigation
    -Textiles and in gold, silver, and cooper
    -Capital Chan Chan
    -Had pyramid temples made of adobe mud
  • Period: 919 to

    Pueblo Bonito founded

    -Located in southern Utah, northern Arizona, northwest New Mexico, and southern Colorado
    -Had apartment like areas for people to live
    -The start of the civilization is unclear
    -Started as hunter gatherer to fully agricultural
    -The roads they had laid out almost 180 miles
  • Period: 968 to 1156

    Tula

    -Toltec capital of Tula founded
    -Was the capital of the Toltecs in Mexico
    -Exact location is unknown
    -Had a population of tens of thousands
    -Aztecs' concept of sun god was borrowed directly from Tula
  • Period: 1050 to 1350

    Cahokia

    -Most important center for people named Mississippians
    -Ranged across Midwest, Eastern, and Southeastern United States
    -Located near the Mississippi
    -Cities ended up being abandoned
    -Abandoned because of over hunting, deforestation, and flooding
    -Another cause could've been
  • Period: 1325 to 1521

    Tenochtitlan Founded

    -Aztec capital Tenochtitlan founded
    -Located in the marshes of Lake Texcoco
    -Covered more than 5 square miles
    -Was located initially on two islands but than moved to the main land
    -Was destroyed by Spanish conquistadors under Hernan Cortes
  • Period: 1325 to 1521

    The Aztecs

    -Large empire in central and southern Mexico
    -Called the Tenochca
    -Referred to themselves as Culhua-Mexica
    -Tribe of hunter gatherers
    -Ruler Itzcoatl made alliances with neighboring states of Texcoco and Tlacopan
    -Had a population of 5-6 million people
    -The fall of the empire started when Montezuma II was taken prisoner by Hernan Cortes
    -Montezuma's successors, Cuitlahuac and Cuauhtemoc couldn't block Hernan Cortes's forces.
  • Period: 1438 to 1532

    Inca

    -Established capital in Cuzco
    Had many conquests for almost 100 years
    -Had population of 12 million people
    -Left no written records
    -Emperor ruled with help from the aristocratic bureaucracy
    -Agriculture: corn, sweet potatoes, squash, peanuts, and cotton
  • Period: 1466 to 1520

    Moctezuma II crowned

    -Born in 1466
    -None for confrontation with the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes
    -Succeeded uncle Ahuitzotl in 1502
    -Commander of the army and organized expeditions of conquest
    -Initially tried to buy of Cortes