Significant Events in the Americas and Europe 600 - 1800 CE

  • 1325

    Settlement of Tenochtitlan

    Settlement of Tenochtitlan
    Link text Aztec mythology claimed that the Aztec's ancestors were guided by the god Huitzilpochtli to the valley of Mexico where they were instructed to inhabit and build a temple where they would offer sacrificial human blood. The location as well as the chinampa system led to the Tenochtitlan become one of the most populous cities in the world at that time, and the capital of a powerful Aztec empire.
  • 1347

    The Humanist Movement of the Renaissance

    The Humanist Movement of the Renaissance
    With the fervent focus on ancient Greco-Roman works came a focus on the aspects of those works as they related to the culture and intellect of man. This emphasis manifested secularly in the Southern Renaissance, and with a spiritual emphasis in the later Northern Renaissance. The humanist movement framed the philosophy of the Renaissances. Francesco Petrarca is commonly credited with being the father of the Renaissance as well as the founder of Humanism in his written work, "Secretum meum."
  • 1428

    Rise of the Aztec empire

    Rise of the Aztec empire
    In 1428, three vassal states unite in rebellion in the Valley of Mexico against the reigning city-state. Emerging victorious, Itzcoatl, leader of the Aztecs, becomes leader of the alliance. Establishing Tenochtitlan, the three city-states begin expansion by conquest that eventually that stretches to both coasts of modern Mexico.
  • 1430

    The Printing Revolution

    The Printing Revolution
    The proliferation of knowledge and ideas had been hampered throughout history by the time-intensive effort required to make a single copy of the original work. In the 1400s, Johannes Gutenberg designed and created the printing press. Able to create 3,600 pages a day, a massive number of copies of a book could be produced in a short amount of time. Naturally, with more copies available, the ideas and knowledge therein could be read by a larger audience than ever before.
  • 1492

    The Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange
    With the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, many new flora and fauna were introduced to both regions. An exchange of crops and domesticated animals drastically impacted the diets of both Americans, Europeans, and eventually the rest of the world. Epidemics were also exchanged. Smallpox was notoriously deadly to the Amerinds and killed millions. Syphilis was introduced to European which led to the death of more than 5 million Europeans. *The Atlantic Slave Trade also, not enough chars. left.
  • 1518

    Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires

    Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires
    In 1518, Cortes with a force of roughly 600 men, in his search for the reputed vast amounts of gold and silver, aggressively occupied the Aztec Empire's palace. Repulsed, he returned in 10 months with 2,000 soldiers to wreak devastation and loot. The last Aztec Emperor was executed in 1525, ending the Aztec empire. In 1530, Pizarro led a small band to war with an already smallpox ravaged Inca Empire. After the loss of their capital, Cuzco, Incan guerrillas held out until 1572.
  • 1580

    Salons

    Salons
    One of the oft overlooked aspects of the Enlightenment is the Salon. Hosted by particularly intelligent Salonnieres, aristocrats would often gather and discuss a wide variety of topics without being censored. This popularization of learning novel concepts in a social context aided the Enlightenment Era's growth. Similar social discussions with emphases on discussion became a cultural norm in coffeehouses around Europe, which was reflected in the nickname given to some, "Penny Universities."
  • Math Emphasized in Science

    Math Emphasized in Science
    The approach to Natural Philosophy had been seeking to explain natural phenomenon. Galileo helped pioneer the modern scientific method by first requiring that one first understands the properties of the phenomenon. Meaning, before one determines "how", make sure to know "what," first. In his book (1610), "The Assayer," Galileo lays out the basis for measuring nature in mathematical to understand phenomenon with more specificity, and accuracy.
  • The Age of Enlightenment

    The Age of Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment, born of the intellectual focus of the Renaissance, was a period in which ideas were spread and shared in every strata of society. With this competition of ideas came many that were the foundations of major societal, political, and economic changes such as political philosophy shifting favor from Absolutism to Nationalism, the revolutions of France, and English and Spanish America, and John Locke's liberal concept of the separation of religion from government.
  • The Bourbon Reforms

    The Bourbon Reforms
    After the French-descended Bourbon line inherited the Spanish throne, many French-style administrative reforms were undertaken to improve incomes from the theretofore benevolently neglected Spanish America. The policy changes, including reducing wealthy American-born Portuguese power in local governance had lasting impacts. The degree to which they contributed to revolution is debated.