Pre-Hispanic and colonial timeline

Timeline created by valeria.
In History
  • 1,800 BCE

    The first civilizations

    The first civilizations
    Within the territory currently covered by the Americans, a wide variety of cultures developed, each of these civilizations has things in common, however there are also many characteristics of their own. Within the cultural mosaic they represent, the cultures stand out: Olmec, Maya, Toltec, Aztec (Mexica).
  • 1,500 BCE

    Creation of the mother culture (Olmeca)

    Creation of the mother culture (Olmeca)
    It was the first in Mesoamerica that founded urban societies and downtown. The Olmecs began with cultural and religious practices that would later be integrated into the Mesoamerican groups that preceded them.
  • -900 BCE

    The era of empires

    The era of empires
    It was a time of general instability; small cities arose that became powerful for some time, then disappeared when conquered by new kingdoms. The new populations were then located in places of easy defense, built moats and walls around their houses and temples, and on top of the mountains they built fortresses.
  • 1272

    Triple alliance

    Triple alliance
    It was the last confederation of indigenous states located in the valley of Mexico, during the post-classic Mesoamerican period, formed by Mexico-Tenochtitlan, of Nahua ethnic affiliation, Tetzcoco (alternatively written as Texcoco) of acolhua and Tlacopan affiliation of Otomian tradition, 3 then of the defeat of Azcapotzalco by these three manors in 1427.
  • 1325

    Mexicas arrive to Texcoco

    Mexicas arrive to Texcoco
    According to the accepted official story, on an islet in the west of Lake Texcoco, they founded the Mexico-Tenochtitlan Mexico in the year 2 Calli or 1325 where the prophecy of an eagle devouring a snake on a cactus was fulfilled, according to the official myth .
  • Jun 20, 1325

    Mexico-Tenochtitlan is founded

    Mexico-Tenochtitlan is founded
    The foundation of the city was a fact whose history is mixed with the legend which is distinctive of the American indigenous regions.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Cristobal Colon discover America

    Cristobal Colon discover America
    Consistent in the arrival in America of an expedition directed by Christopher Columbus by mandate of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabel de Castilla and Fernando de Aragón.
  • 1519

    La Malinche joins the Hernan Cortes expedition

    La Malinche joins the Hernan Cortes expedition
    La Malinche was a Nahua woman from the southern region of the current Mexican state of Veracruz who played an important role in the Spanish conquest of the Mexican empire. La Malinche served as interpreter, counselor and intermediary for Hernán Cortés. In 1519, she was one of the twenty slave women given as tribute to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco, after the battle of Centla.
  • Mar 14, 1519

    The battle of Centla

    The battle of Centla
    After Grijalva's first visit, in March 1519 another Spanish arrived at the coast of Tabasco: the conqueror Hernán Cortés. Despite previous cordial treatment with Grijalva, this time the Chontales rejected the attempt to disembark Cortes and his men. The reason for this change in attitude among the Maya is not very clear, but Cortes made some attempts to convince the Indians to allow them to disembark. Being unable to disembark by peaceful means, he decides the military incursion.
  • Apr 21, 1519

    Hernan Cortes arrives to Mexico

    Hernan Cortes arrives to Mexico
    The Conquest of Mexico refers mainly to the submission of the Mexican State, achieved by Hernán Cortés in the name of King Carlos I of Spain and in favor of the Spanish Empire
  • Sep 18, 1519

    Cholula slaughter

    Cholula slaughter
    The massacre of Cholula was an attack carried out by the military forces of the Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés on his way to Mexico City-Tenochtitlan in 1519.
  • May 20, 1520

    Massacre of the Templo Mayor

    Massacre of the Templo Mayor
    La Matanza de Toxcatl, also called the Massacre of the Templo Mayor, was an episode of the Conquest of Mexico in which the Spaniards killed the Mexica at the time they were making a ceremony to the gods Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli.
  • Jun 30, 1520

    The sad night

    The sad night
    The Sad Night, is the name of the defeat suffered by the Castilian soldiers of Hernán Cortés and his allies at the hands of the Mexican army between June 30 and the night of July 1, 1520, last day of the month Tecuilhuitontli, in the outside of Tenochtitlan, today Mexico City.
  • Jul 2, 1520

    The battle of Calacoaya

    The battle of Calacoaya
    Hernán Cortés and the Spanish invaders had to flee the city of Tenochtitlan in an episode known as the Sad Night. During his escape, the army of Cortes suffered considerable casualties on the Mexico-Tacuba road. Upon arriving in Tacuba, the invaders were repelled fiercely and did not obtain refuge anywhere in this Tepaneca town. Therefore, Cortés fled towards the course of Totolpepec (now Naucalpan).
  • Jul 7, 1520

    The battle of Otumba

    The battle of Otumba
    The battle of Otumba was a confrontation between the Mexican and Allied forces led by the Matlatzincátzin cihuacóatl and those of Hernán Cortés formed by the Spanish conquerors and Tlaxcaltec allies. The result of the battle was a victory for the Spaniards, which allowed Cortes to reorganize his army again, which had suffered casualties a few days earlier in the episode known as the Sad Night.
  • Dec 5, 1520

    Cuitlahuac dies

    Cuitlahuac dies
    Cuitláhuac died of smallpox, a disease brought by the Spaniards and that among the indigenous population, lacking defenses against it, caused the death of thousands and contributed to the fall of Tenochtitlan. He was the tenth and penultimate Aztec emperor.
  • Jul 13, 1521

    Capture of Cuauhtémoc

    Capture of Cuauhtémoc
    Cuauhtémoc was taken prisoner by Cortés. According to some versions, when facing me, the Mexican warrior told the Spanish: “Sir, I have already done what I am obliged in defense of my city and my vassals and I can no more, and then I come by force and prisoner before your person and power, take that dagger in your belt and kill me with it later. ” Cortes replied that he appreciated everything he had done and that his actions should be more good than bad, and that the past was past.
  • Aug 13, 1521

    Fall of Tenochtitlan

    Fall of Tenochtitlan
    After a three-month siege, Spanish forces under Hernán Cortés capture Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire. Cortés’ men leveled the city and captured Cuauhtémoc, the Aztec emperor.
  • Apr 17, 1535

    First viceroy Antonio de Mendoza

    First viceroy Antonio de Mendoza
    In this territory he had to deal with the strong personalities of the conquerors, with Hernán Cortés at the head, and with the peninsular people who formed the First Audience.
  • Independence of Mexico

    Independence of Mexico
    The Independence of Mexico was the consequence of a political and social process resolved with arms, which put an end to Spanish rule in most of the territories of New Spain.
    So this ended the conquist.
  • References

    Carvajal, L.(2015, 22 agosto). La conquista y sus principales batallas. Recuperado 17 enero, 2020, de https://es.slideshare.net/LinnCarvajal/la-conquista-y-sus-principales-batallas Barraza, E.(2019, 8 marzo). Hernán Cortés, 10 fechas claves de su invasión a Tenochtitlan. Recuperado 17 enero, 2020, de http://barriozona.com/hernan-cortes-10-fechas-claves-de-su-invasion-a-tenochtitlan/ EcuRed (s.f.). Batalla de Centla - EcuRed. Recuperado 17 enero, 2020, de https://www.ecured.cu/Batalla_de_Centla