A Level Russian Revolution (advanced info 2022)

By flk
  • Period: to

    The rule of Nicholas II

    Nicholas II was a shy and sensitive man, who had no experience of ruling. His reign continued under the principles of autocracy, nationality, and orthodoxy. Russification and the Okhrana were both symbols of extreme oppression. After the 1905 Revolution, Nicholas did all possible to claw back some power, leading to the partial survival of autocracy by 1906.
  • Nicholas II becomes the Tsar

    Nicholas had little experience or training, making him an indecisive and uneasy ruler. He valued personal relationships, and relied on others, such as Sergei Witte, to run the country initially. He continued the policy of Russification, whilst the Okhrana and the Orthodox Church had influential roles to play.
  • Bolshevik-Menshevik Split

    The Social Democratic Party split into Lenin's Bolsheviks and Martov's Mensheviks, with different interpretations of Marxism. This is representative of the divides within many opposition groups, partially explaining their limited impact.
  • Formation of the League of Liberation

    The League of Liberation was formed from the members of the Liberation movement; many members of the Zemstva, universities, the middle class and other middle-class liberals joined. The LoL organised its Banquet Campaign, mobilising support for opposition to the Tsar in a technically legal way.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Believing their victory to be undoubtable, the Russian government was embarrassed at the humiliating defeat Japan served them. It emboldened opposition, and worsened the living conditions of Russia's citizens.
  • The 1905 Revolution

    A vast collection of disorder, the 1905 Revolution saw many groups of Russian society rebel against the Tsarist government. The Union of Unions and Peasants Union put pressure on the government, leading many strikes. It has been described as many parallel revolutions rather than a unified one.
  • Bloody Sunday

    This was the massacre of unarmed protestors trying to peacefully petition the Tsar, led by Father Gapon. It led to 500,000 workers protesting, and was a spark for the 1905 Revolution.
  • Potemkin Mutiny

    The Potemkin battleship mutinied, showing the growing discontent even within the armed forces against the Tsar.
  • August Manifesto

    Nicholas had initially wanted to crush the disorder and opposition with force, however was persuaded into temporary concessions, as the army was away fighting with Japan. The Bulygin Constitution was written to appease liberals. It included the establishment of the Duma, which would be purely advisory. It also excluded workers, minorities and much of the intelligentsia from voting. The vast majority opposed it.
  • General strike

    The general strike only put more pressure on the Tsar, as more people than ever were crying out for reform and revolution. It directly led to the October Manifesto.
  • October Manifesto

    The August Manifesto accelerated dissent; the general strike broke out in October, and opposition to the Tsar had never been greater. Witte, who had just negotiated peace with the Japanese, gave the Tsar a choice between military rule and concessions. The October Manifesto's concessions included freedoms of speech, assembly and association. Laws could now only be passed with the Duma's approval, and the ballot was extended to all classes.
  • Response to the October Manifesto

    Moderate liberals supporting a constitutional monarchy formed the Octobrists, in support of the government's manifesto, on the 17th October 1905. Milyukov led the Kadets, a group claiming that the Tsar would go back on his word. They argued that the October Manifesto did not go far enough. In contrast, the Union of Russian People supported autocracy, orthodoxy and nationality. Their paramilitary force, the Black Hundreds, orchestrated pogroms against Jews. The Tsarist government supported them.
  • Crushing of the Moscow Uprising

    Although St Petersburg's Soviet was disbanded without a fight, the Moscow Soviet opposed the Tsar, distributing weapons and taking control of many districts. The Tsar issued a brutal response, taking back the city. Executions without trial followed. Ultimately, there were over 1000 deaths, and the dismantling of the Moscow Soviet.
  • Emigration to Siberia begins

    The developments of the Trans-Siberian Railway resulted in the increased possibility of migration. Stolypin offered free/cheap land, interest-free loans, and tax incentives. Between 1906 and 1914, 3.5 million emigrated, and 80% of these settled.
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    The end of Romanov rule

    The response to the 1905 revolution had solidified Nicholas' power, however his attempts to further limit representation and stifle dissent made him more unpopular. His relations with the Duma were always negative, and the government remained largely autocratic by 1914. Stolypin's policies were opposed, but they did have some effect in reducing countryside riots.
  • Fundamental Laws

    The Fundamental Laws were issued now that the Tsar had a more secure position. It declared the Tsar's supremacy, allowed laws without Duma approval when it wasn't in session, allowed the Tsar to dissolve the Duma, established the Imperial State Council, and gave the Tsar alone control of ministerial appointments and matters such as defense and foreign policy. The Fundamental Laws gained back some power for the Tsarist government.
  • The first Duma

    The first Duma was led by the Kadets and socialist groups (Trudoviks), whilst radical socialists boycotted the elections. They immediately called for further democratisation, amnesty for political prisoners, and radical land reform, including the distribution of the nobility's estates to the peasantry. The government refused, and after the Duma called for its resignation, the Tsar dissolved it.
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    After being made Interior Minister earlier in the year, Stolypin's power was consolidated in his appointment as PM. Stolypin had a reputation as a brutal yet effective administrator, and set out many reforms. He favoured land reform, removing land captains, and promoting private ownership. He boosted and reformed education, and provided compensation for injured factory workers. This garnered him opposition from conservatives, and he was less popular by the time of his assassination in 1911.
  • The Vyborg Manifesto

    200 members of the dissolved Duma called for a tax revolt from Vyborg, Finland. However, many were drained from the 1905 Revolution, and protesting activity did not occur. Many members were arrested, the Kadets failed.
  • Stolypin declares a state of emergency

    To combat the violence in the countryside, first a state of emergency, and then the field courts martial were introduced. These implemented severe conviction policies which saw the slow reduction of rioting in the countryside. The death penalty was so widely distributed that the noose gained the nickname 'Stolypin's Necktie'.
  • Agriculture reformation

    The decree on land ownership allowed for peasants to vote on the division of communal land, and private ownership of farms. Interest rates in the Peasants' Land Bank were relaxed, allowing for greater land purchase by peasants. Other laws continued the trend of privatisation of farms, supposed to increase competition and boost productivity. Only around 10% of peasants set up farms independent of the village commune by 1914, and the growth by this time was equally attributed to good harvests.
  • The second Duma

    The radical socialists (such as Bolsheviks) participated this time, and joined the Trudoviks in a socialist majority in the Duma, halving the Kadets' seats. The Tsarist government had funded right-wing parties, which failed. The second Duma opposed Stolypin's land reforms, and he dissolved it in early June, saying that some Bolshevik members had committed crimes. There were many arrest of revolutionary party members by Stolypin; over 2000 in the Black Earth region alone.
  • New electoral law

    Stolypin, who had been the Chief Minister for nearly a year, rewrote the 1905 electoral law to make the Duma more sympathetic to the Tsarist government. The nobility, less than 1% of the population, now elected over half of the Duma, whilst the peasantry, making up 80% of the population, elected less than a fifth.
  • The third and fourth Dumas (1907-1917)

    New electoral law had weakened the opposition, and the Octobrists came out on top in the third and fourth Dumas. They were much more sympathetic to the Tsar at first, with the fourth Duma including more right-wing support. The Tsar still opposed the Duma, particularly the Octobrist leader Guchkov. Guchkov accused the Tsar of nepotism, and attacked Rasputin's influence. Nicholas almost made the body advisory before the First World War, and their influence and opposition to the Tsar decreased.
  • Land reforms become law

    The agricultural reforms that Stolypin had brought forward became law, and their effects began from this point. Its proximity to Stolypin's assassination shows how little time the reforms had to take hold.
  • Stolypin's assassination

    Bogrov, a socialist revolutionary, assassinated Stolypin on a visit to Kiev. His reforms were somewhat unpopular at this point, and the Tsar had already been looking for his replacement.
  • Lena Goldfields Massacre

    Workers protesting against the serving of horse meat in the canteens quickly began striking in favour of better working conditions and pay in the Lena Goldfields. After a month of standstill, soldiers were sent in to arrest the leaders. This led to a standoff, and the deaths of around 200 miners. Mass protests of over 300,000 people broke out across Russia.
  • Russian entry into the First World War

    Russia had the largest European army, and had recently been modernised and rearmed after its embarrassing defeat in the Russo-Japanese War. However, there were few quality officers, soldiers were physically weaker and more loyal to local regions than the empire, and there was a lack of heavy artillery, machine guns and motorised. Industry could only supply 27% of rifles needed per month.
  • 1915 Munitions Crisis

    Any war had been assumed to be short, and little stockpile of weapons was made. As a result, the spring shell shortage crippled the armed forces, and many blamed the government's incompetence. The transport system was in shambles, delaying supplies and helping ramp up inflation. It was very bad, wages doubled in this period but flour increased 5X in price, and potatoes increased 7X in price.
  • Creation of the Zemgor

    In response to the difficulties faced by many Russian citizens, the Zemstvo union and Union of Towns were undertaking relief work and boosting wartime production. They unified into the Zemgor in spring 1915, manufacturing uniforms, boots, pharmaceuticals and providing medical care, canteens and refugee assistance. Their contribution to the overall wartime production was under 5%, but it was a massive organised effort, showing citizens an alternative to the inefficient government.
  • The Great Retreat

    After suffering defeats at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes, the Russian salient in Poland, Lithuania and Belorussia was invaded. This caused around 2 million casualties (wounded, killed or captured). It was a disaster and resulted in the Russian line being pushed back significantly, and the Tsar taking control of the military.
  • The Progressive Bloc forms

    The whole Duma, except the far left and far right groups, formed the Progressive Bloc, in order to press for much-needed measures in wartime. It called for partnership between the Tsar and Duma, but the Tsar rejected this. After this, the Bloc was incensed and little was done until the February Revolution. Government ministers were shouted down, hissed at and forced from the stand. Pavel Milyukov shouted the famous question 'is this stupidity, or is this treason?'. Lots of drama.
  • Brusilov Offensive

    A massive Russian push which was successful in its aim of taking pressure off Verdun. It also supported the wider allied push into enemy territory. However it was extremely costly, with between 500,000 and 1 million casualties. It pushed the Russian army to breaking point, and the High Command did not seize the opportunities created by Brusilov.
  • Death of Rasputin and political chaos

    Rasputin, a crazy wizard man who was 'friendly' with ladies, was seen to have too much influence over the royal family. He was assassinated by some members of the royal family who were aiming to cleanse the monarchy. This was representative of the wider political chaos; ministerial leapfrog was occurring, with three chief ministers in 1916 (sounds familiar 2022) and many more changes in the government. The monarchy's reputation was heavily damaged by Rasputin and the political chaos of the time.
  • International Women's Day

    After protests and strikes had grown in Russia, closing the giant Putilov factory in Petrograd, it was International Women's Day. Women (who made up 70% of the city's textile workforce and 20% of the engineering workforce) began to walk out, calling for an end to the war and better living conditions. They were joined by men and triggered a five day general strike of over 200,000 workers in the city. These efforts were successfully beaten back by the authorities at first.
  • Creation of the Provisional Committee

    As the government collapsed, the Provisional Committee of the Duma was created, dominated by the leaders of the Duma's parties, such as Milyukov and Lvov. It aimed to restore public order and establish a new government, but it was not democratically elected to do so. Furthermore, the army refused to obey its commands. The Petrograd Soviet, elected by workers and soldiers, cooperated with the new Provisional Government, supervising it and representing their electorate's interests.
  • Petrograd Garrison Mutinies

    After days of intense protest and violence, some soldiers were sick of firing on their own citizens. One barrack of the garrison mutinied, and then another, and another. Officers fled and soldiers joined the throng of protestors. The government's military arm, its method of surviving instability and protest in the past, had failed. This event facilitated the end of 300 years of Russian monarchy.
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    The Provisional Government and its opponents

    After the February Revolution, the Provisional Government promised to rule until the elections. However, it relied on the power of the Petrograd Soviet to maintain authority. Early cooperation led to some reforms, however tensions rose as the Soviet took on a more powerful role with time. Several events such as the July Days and the Kornilov Crisis caused fluctuations in the balance of power. Lenin's driving force pushed the now Bolshevik-controlled Soviet to power in the October Revolution.
  • Soviet Order no 1

    After the Provisional Committee of the Duma ordered soldiers back into their barracks, soldiers refused, turning to the Soviet. The Petrograd Soviet issued Soviet Order no 1, in which the Petrograd garrison would only take orders approved by the Soviet. In this way, the Soviet controlled the city. It had authority over workers, and now soldiers.
  • Abdication of the Tsar

    Nicholas had been advised that the situation in Petrograd was totally fine, don't even worry about it. However, after the garrison mutinied he saw the writing on the wall, abdicating once his army high command advised him to. His son was not in good health, and his brother refused, so the Romanov dynasty simply came to an end. He had lost support in all areas of Russian society, and many were now concerned with winning the war. Nicholas finally got what he wanted; a private, family life.
  • Beginning of dual power

    The Provisional Committee of the Duma, led by Milyukov and the Kadets, took power during the February Revolution. After their lack of authority over soldiers became clear, an agreement with the Petrograd Soviet allowed the liberal PG to officially rule, whilst the PS monitored the government's actions, representing workers and soldiers. Kerensky, a prominent member of the PS, became a minister in the PG, the only member to do so.
  • Early PG reforms

    The PG and PS had negotiated early reforms to improve Russia. These included: amnesty for all political prisoners, the abolition of capital punishment, full freedoms of speech and assembly, equal rights for all citizens (nationality, religion, class), removal of Tsarist police forces, and the full democratization of Zemstva elections.
  • Issuing of the April Theses

    After returning to Russia, Lenin had managed to get the Bolsheviks behind his goal of immediate revolution, going against Marxist doctrine. The April Theses' aim was to garner support. They promised immediate peace with the Central Powers, supported peasant land seizures, and called for 'All power to the Soviets'. Lenin bent Bolshevik principles for as wide an appeal as possible, trying to gain supporters for a Bolshevik overthrow of the Provisional Government, portraying it as slow and useless.
  • The Milyukov Crisis

    The Soviet policy of revolutionary defenceism laid out the socialist opinion of the war's outcome: that there should be no gains or losses, and a treaty signed with the Central Powers. Most of the PG approved of this, however Milyukov believed in a true victory over Germany, and territorial gains. In the PG's Declaration of War Aims, a document sent to the Allies, Milukov personally opposed RD. This note was leaked to the public, and there were protests in the street.
  • Restructured Provisional Government

    After the Milyukov Crisis, Milyukov and Guchkov resigned. Lvov opposed the rivalry between the PG and PS, and appealed to the Soviet. This resulted in members of the Soviet joining the government, ending dual power and showing that the Soviet had greater influence. It also advanced the career of Kerensky, now War Minister.
  • The June Offensive

    Due to an agreement with the Allies, an all-out assult was launched on Russian frontlines with the Central Powers. If successful, this would gain support and credibility for the PG's revolutionary defenceism, and bring Kerensky glory. It was a disastrous failure; the army was already weary and weakened by the desertion of 100,000 men. This further weakened the Provisional Government's position, making the Bolsheviks more appealing.
  • The July Days

    After a regiment had refused to send equipment and troops to the June Offensive, other soldiers and factory workers came to support it. Mid-level Bolsheviks inflamed these people, and many protested in the streets, calling for power to the Soviets. They were joined by the militant Krondstadt sailors. However, Lenin did not join these cries, and the crowds dispersed, leaderless. 800 Bolsheviks arrested, Lenin fled, and the Red Guard was disarmed. It was a disaster for the Bolsheviks.
  • Kerensky becomes the Prime Minister

    Lvov had become a drag on the government's image, as he was seen as ineffective, so he resigned. Kerensky was immensely popular, so he took over as Prime Minister. There was intense division within all major parties, so he had to resign in order to get them to agree to a coalition. It was a weak government from the start despite Kerensky's popularity; a narrower support base and lack of heavy hitters meant Kerensky was really the one keeping the government popular.
  • The Kornilov Affair

    After being appointed Commander-in-Chief, Kornilov made a series of demands that would make him, in effect, a military dictator. Kerensky dismissed him, and this led to Kornilov marching on Petrograd. Kerensky turned to the Soviet in desparation, arming the Red Guard and Krondstadt sailors. Bolsheviks infiltrated Kornilov's march, and workers disrupted communications and railways to slow the advancing army. The Bolsheviks appeared heroic, and Kerensky looked weak from all sides.
  • Trotsky elected Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet

    Trotsky, one of the most well-known and skilled revolutionaries in Russia, had joined the Bolsheviks earlier in the year. He became Chairman of the PS, as Bolsheviks across Russia made gains, many places having Bolshevik or Bolshevik-allied controlled Soviets. This gave Trotsky control of the Military Revolutionary Committee, giving him access to weaponry and intelligence. On the surface, these were the Soviets' actions, but the Bolsheviks really controlled it, giving them a key advantage.
  • Meeting of the Central Committee

    After his letters calling for an immediate insurrection were ignored, Lenin returned to Petrograd and gave his argument directly to the Committee. This caused great debate, but the meeting ended in agreement with him. Another meeting triggered organisation of the details. Lenin had whipped up desire for immediate revolution within a party that probably wouldn't have taken that course without his influence.
  • The October Revolution

    On the 24th, Bolsheviks seized key points around the city, such as railway stations, communication lines, and bridges. On the 25th, the PG HQ was surrounded, and Trotsky declared victory. The second meeting of the Congress of Soviets began, with representatives from across Russia. On the 26th, the Mensheviks and Right SRs walked out of the Congress in protest, and the Winter Palace surrendered. The Decrees on Peace and Land were made, and the new government was formed.
  • Formation of a new Bolshevik government

    The Sovnarkom (Council of People's Commissars) would be accountable to the Congress. It would govern until the constituent assembly elections. The Decree on Land promised redistribution of the nobility and Church's lands to those who cultivated it. The Decree on Peace demanded an immediate ceasefire of the war. The Bolsheviks were adhering to former promises.
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    Defending the Bolshevik revolution

    The Bolsheviks' economic policy had to evolve in order to suit the changing problems in Russia. By the end of Lenin's life, many typical Communist economic practices were no longer part of Bolshevik policy, as they had worsened the country's situation.
  • Electing and closing the Constituent Assembly

    The elections brought a Social Revolutionary victory, but Bolshevik majorities among the soldiers and in major cities. Many of the Left SRs, however, were supportive of the Bolsheviks, so they still held great influence. Lenin decried these results, and relied on Marx's idea that there would have to be a temporary proletariat dictatorship. He also touted that the Soviet was a higher democratic body. The Assembly was closed after one day, anti-Bolshevik protestors were shot upon in January 1918.
  • Formation of the Cheka

    The Bolsheviks pretty much immediately formed a secret police force, always a good sign of democracy. Their purpose was to suppress dissent against the government, and its numbers grew to 150,000 agents by 1921. It contained some militarised units and it operated outside the law, gaining a reputation for brutality and savagery.
  • State Capitalism and the creation of the Vesenkha

    Lenin believed that immediate nationalisation would not suit the Russian economy; massive inflation and shortages had caused mass unemployment. The Supreme Council of National Economy was established to monitor the activities of private business. Whilst there was some nationalisation (banks and some factories, such as Putilov), most businesses remained private under supervision. The Decree on Workers' control had given workers more say, but did not authorise their takeover of factories.
  • Formation of the Red Army

    There was no official declaration of Civil War, but the Russian Army had collapsed in 1917, with many joining nationalist generals in the far reaches of Russia, and others going to the Bolshevik side. The Bolshevik forces were reorganised into the Red Army, with conscription later introduced. Pro-Tsarist, but mainly anti-Bolshevik, forces were known as Whites, with other groups including the Greens and national independents movements also rebelling. It was a complicated one.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    The Bolsheviks were desperate for a quick settlement in the war. The Germans offered harsh terms, including the loss of 26% of Russia's population, 27% of its arable land, and 74% of its coal and iron reserves. This split the Sovnarkom leadership, but, after threatening to resign, Lenin convinced most of the group to support the Treaty. The Left SRs stormed out, and the army chiefs, middle and upper classes were angry. This treaty led directly to the Civil War.
  • First Allied troops land in Russia

    Allies wanted to help the Whites in the Civil War in part to put more pressure on Germany through Russia rejoining the First World War. Allies also had economic interests in Russia, and some wanted to contain Communism. British, French, American, Czech, and Japanese forces among others made some efforts, with the British being the most active, with over 400 KIA. Britain also made £100 mil of supplies available to the Whites, some of which went to the Reds by accident. Trotsky said thank you.
  • The beginning of War Communism

    Previous policy had not stopped rampant inflation and shortages. War communism introduced food brigades and requisitioning. Rationining occured in cities, with capitalists at the bottom, barely surviving. It banned private trade, and nationalised most major industries. This was to maximise production and trade food/goods between only the state and producers, no middlemen. One-man management returned in factories.
  • One-party state

    The Kadets had been outlawed in late 1917, and with the new constitution of the RSFSR, members of the middle class were denied the vote. The Mensheviks and SRs were expelled from all Soviets, not being technically illegal but harassed into extinction.
  • Red Terror

    Lenin had ordered hangings of many 'rich bastards' to frighten the population in rural areas. After Fanny Kaplan tried to assassinate him, the Red Terror began in earnest. The word 'bourgeois' was used to describe anybody the Bolsheviks didn't like, and they were usually brutally murdered. Cases included scalping, crucification, and being pushed into boiling water. Between 1917 and 1923, the Red Terror may have killed 200,000 people, including the ex-Tsar and his family.
  • Russo-Polish War

    After a very complicated period, the Polish nationalists had succeeded in efforts to gain independence. However, Poland wanted their historical land which was held by the new RSFSR, so declared war on the Soviets. It was back and forth, but the Polish won, and lots of land was ceded to Poland in the Treaty of Riga (1921).
  • Defeat of Kolchak

    Kolchak, the Supreme Ruler of Russia and commanded the Eastern/Siberian forces in the White armies. After advancing over 250 miles, he was pushed back and defeated, being captured and executed. The Bolsheviks often had transport, industry and population advantages, so reinforcements for counteroffensives were commonplace and effective.
  • Defeat of Yudenich

    The smallest White force, Yudenich's army was based in the North-West of Russia. The three main sectors of White territory were split from eachother, so communication and reinforcement was extremely difficult. Yudenich had advanced towards the lightly-defended Petrograd, but failed to capture the Moscow-Petrograd railway, allowing a Red Army reinforcement to push him back. He was arrested by Polish armed forces.
  • Defeat of Denikin

    The commander of the southern White front, Denikin also made massive progress, but was pushed back by a Bolshevik counteroffensive. He resigned, and the southern army held out for only nine more months under the command of Wrangel.
  • Tambov Rising (1920-1921)

    The Civil War had kept peasant unrest towards grain requisitioning down, as there were fears of what a White victory would do. However, once the fighting died down, the countryside began to mass revolt against Bolshevik rule; 40000 peasant fighters rebelled in Tambov. This rebellion paralysed Russia; Tambov was the main food-producing region, and railways were out of control. The government responded brutally, eg with gas. They killed not just the men, but the women, and the children too.
  • Famine of 1921-22

    The NEP did not stop the famine which occured in the early summer of 1921. It caused over 5 million deaths, and some resorted to cannibalism. Over 25 million households were affected.
  • The Krondstadt Mutiny

    The Krondstadt Manifesto was published by 10,000 mutineeing sailors. They called for an end to Bolshevik corruption and abuse of power, and new elections. 50,000 Red Army soldiers were sent to destroy the rebellion, which they did after losing 1/5 of their force. The sailors had been some of the Bolsheviks' greatest supporters, but like many, they became dissolusioned with their actions.
  • The ban on factions

    At the 10th party congress, Lenin banned factions, stifling criticism of the NEP's capitalist parts, and the growth of nepmen. The Democratic Centralists and the Workers' Opposition were both dissolved, and the party slowly became an oligarchy. A purge, in which the party lost around 1/3 of its members, took place between 1921 and 1923. The Politburo grew in power, with the Sovnarkom and other institutions being marginalised. All authority lay with Lenin and his Commissars.
  • Beginning of the New Economic Policy

    Grain requisitioning was replaced with a tax in kind, where a proportion would be taken by the state, and surplus grain could be sold. Private businesses were allowed, and the service and consumer goods industries grew. Lenin's 'commanding heights' of the economy remained under state control, including heavy industry, banks, and railways. These industries were expected to trade at a profit, and were not bailed out if they failed. The NEP aimed to turn Russia into a mixed economy.
  • Cheka becomes GPU

    The Cheka, the state secret police force, was renamed the GPU, which continued the arrest of SRs and Mensheviks. 11 SRs were executed in 1922, and the concentration camps for political detainees grew. Furthermore, the 'iron rule' principle ordered the removal of valuables from churches, conflicts which caused over 8000 deaths.
  • Last Allied forces leave Russia

    The Allies had had a limited impact in their Russian intervention. They secured some economic interests but ultimately were war-weary and many left by 1920. The Japanese stayed in the far East until 1922. Foreign intervention had served to help the Bolsheviks' propaganda efforts, portraying the Whites as slaves to foreign powers.
  • The Scissors Crisis

    Agriculture had developed much more quickly than industry as a result of the NEP. Industrial prices rose, making economic data look like scissors on graphs. The government ended up intervening, controlling wages and cutting staff.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin had enormous stress and workloads after taking power, and suffered several strokes. Russia at the time of his death was a highly centralised and repressive one-party state. The economy was recovering thanks to the NEP, but the citizens lived in fear and the country was exhausted from ten years of instability and war. Lenin's death would bring about a brutal leadership struggle, despite his wishes for collective governance. But that, my friends, is a story for another time. The end.