A brief history of Italy
Period: 10,000 BCE to
History of Italy
PREHISTORYSmall settlements, quite sophisticated civilisations (villages beside rivers, metalworking, livestock farming and raising.
GREEKS AND ETRUSCANSGreek settlements in Naples, Sicily and the southern coast named as Magna Graecia. Magna Graecia dominated the trade in the Mediterranean. At the same time the Etruscans settled in the north of Tiber and Around the Arno. They builded hilltop cities and created agricultural lands with advanced systems.
THE ROMAN EMPIRELatin communities settled on the Palatine Hill and gradually expanded. The Roman Empire bornt in 27BC, it invaded much of Europe, Greece, Spain, North Africa and Asia minor. The Romans made many innovations in engigneering and architecture
THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIREInvasions and civil wars disrupted the Empire. Meanwhile the Christianity religion had been declared as the state religion. In 476 AD the Empire was finally over and Flavius Odoacer was named as the first king of Italy.
THE MIDDLE AGESThis was a period of repetead invasions and struggles for domination between the conqueros and the popes. The four maritime republics were important political and commercial powers. Cities setted up local autonomy governements.
THE RENAISSANCEFrom the late 14th century to the 16th century Italy saw a proliferation of intellectual and artistic ideas. In this period happened many progresses in art, science, philosophy and literature.
FOREIGN RULEFrom the 16th to 18th century, Italy faced invasions and wars by foreign powers, leading to economic decline. Napoleon briefly annexed the northern and central regions in 1796. After his defeat in 1814, Italy was divided into ten states, returning to previous divisions with foreign control.
UNIFICATIONThe political and social discontent in Italy led to the foundation of rebellions in different parts of the country. Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italians nationalists, played a fundamental role in the Risorgimento, the movement for reform and unification of the country. In 1860, Garibaldi conquered Sicily, moved to Naples and the rest of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. The Kingdom of Italy was officially proclaimed in 17th March, 1861, and ten years later, Rome became the capital.