1800s Timeline

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    Napoleonic Wars

    The Napoleonic Wars were a series of several wars fought in Europe, all involving Napoleon's France.
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    Congress of Vienna meets to restore stability in Europe

    The Congress of Vienna met in hopes of reestablishing borders and monarchies after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
  • Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

    In the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium, a French army led by Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington.
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    Greek Independence

    The Greek Revolution begins as a movement for independence from the Ottoman Empire.
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    Belgian Revolution

    The Belgian Revolution separated Belgium from the Netherlands as its own independent kingdom, with French as the new official language.
  • Liverpool-Manchester Railroad opens

    The first inter-city railroad in the world opens using exclusively steam power.
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    Queen Victoria’s reign in Britain

    Queen Victoria’s reign in Britain lasts 63 years, ending with her death.
  • Potato Famine in Ireland begins

    The Irish Potato Famine begins after a disease affecting potatoes, the main source of food, spread through the area.
  • The Revolutions of 1848

    The Revolutions of 1848 were a series of revolutions across Europe against monarchs, most of which failed.
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    Italy unifies

    Italy's unification was triggered by the Revolutions of 1848, and concluded in 1871 with the declaration of Rome as its capitol.
  • Marx & Engels publish The Communist Manifesto

    Marx & Engels publish The Communist Manifesto, a detailed writing of their economic beliefs, theories and ideas.
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    Crimean War

    The Crimean War is fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
  • Bessemer Process is invented

    Henry Bessemer patented the process, which had the purpose of removing impurities from iron.
  • Britain begins rule of India

    The British Crown takes rule of India until 1947.
  • Charles Darwin publishes the Origins of Species

    The scientifically groundbreaking 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection' is published by Charles Darwin.
  • Czar Alexander II frees the Serfs

    The Russian emperor issues the Emancipation Manifesto, freeing Russian serfs.
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    Germany unifies

    The process of German unification concludes with the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
  • Dynamite invented

    Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invents dynamite using nitroglycerin.
  • Britain grants Canada self-rule

    The British North America Act is passed, granting Canada self-rule.
  • French-built Suez Canal opens in Egypt

    The Suez Canal is finished and opens, connecting the Mediterranean and Red Seas.
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    Franco-Prussian War

    The Franco-Prussian war is fought and ultimately ended with the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Czar Alexander II assassinated

    Czar Alexander II is fatally injured by a bomb thrown by the People’s Will” group.