World War I, Causes, and Aftermath

By apush
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    General Paul von Hindenburg

    He originally retired from the army in 1911, but Moltke called him back in with the outbreak of war in 1914. He was in command of the Eighth Army. He would later serve as the second president of Germany. He had a town, zeppelin, causeway and a battleship named after him.
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    Bismarck truns Germany into a world power

    From when Otto von Bismarck is appointed foreign minister of Prussia to the end of the Franco-Prussian war with the treaty of Versailles Bismarck's only goal is to unify what he sees as Germany under one rule. He takes the weakest of the Great Powers, Prussia, and makes into the most powerful in Europe. Once that is accomplished he took a step back and began to work on maintaining peace. In this his main goal was to isolate France from any and all outside help
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    General Erich Ludendorff

    He began as a lieutenate in 1885 and rose through the ranks to General. For a while he was appointed Deputy Chief of Staff to the German Second Army. The German assault in early August 1914 invading France, gained him national recognition
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    Three Emperors' League

    The Three Emperors’ League linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia against radical movements. Russian victories in the war with the Ottomans threatened the balance of power and caused him to make a new alliance with Austria-Hungary after his attempt to compromise at the Congress of Berlin pissed off the Russian nationalists.
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    Renewal of the Alliance of Three Emperors

    Bismarck manages to get it renewed but in 1887 Russia once again declines to renter.
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    Tripple Alliance

    Originally the Austrian-German Alliance, a defensive alliance against Russia lasting from 1879-1918, it became the Triple Alliance with the addition of Italy in 1882. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any two other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone. According to Italy’s request no help would be offered to war against Great Britain.
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    Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty

    Both nations promise neutrality if the other was attacked. It was made in response to the end of the Alliance of the Tree Emperors. It ends when Germany after the firing of Bismarck fails to renew the treaty
  • William II is crowned

    William II is crowned
    When William II became the king of Prussia the relationship between the German monarchy and the all important Otto Von Bismarck began to crumble. 106 years later on this date Amber Mueller was born. :)
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    William II's reign

    He was the last to be both a king of Prussia and the ruler of the German empire. He was the grandson of Queen Victory of England and an ineffective leader. He fired Bismarck and sent the country on a new course in foreign policy. In World War I he will side with Austria which does not turn out well for him.
  • Bismark is fired

    Bismark is fired
    William II dismisses Bismarck on the grounds of Bismarck being too friendly towards Russia. After firing Bismarck, William II refuses to renew the German alliance with Russia. This causes Russia to forge an alliance with France who Bismarck had been trying so hard to keep isolated.
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    Franco-Russian Alliance

    A millitary allance between the theird republic of France and the Russian Empire, and Tsar Alexander III. French battleships stood in St. Petersburg harbor and played the Marseillaise while Alexandr III stood on board in 1891. It ended with the colapse of the Russian governmetn during the Russian revolution.
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    South African War

    The South African War was between Great Britain and the Afrikaans-speaking Boer inhabitants of the Boer republics: the South African Republic, and the Orange Free State. It ended with the annexation of these to republics into British South Africa. The real consequence of the war was that it forced the British to see their armies were stretched too thin. It also causes and upspring of anti-imperialistic literature criticizing Britain’s last Imperial conquest.
  • Expansion of the German fleet

    Expansion of the German fleet
    The expansion of the German fleet challenged Great Brittan’s naval supremacy and helped to prevent any treaty from being reached between the two countries. This Imperial German Navy was run by Admiral von Tirpitz. In 1900 it included 38 battleships, 20 armoured cruisers and 38 light cruisers.
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    Anglo-Japanese Alliance

    The Anglo-Japanese Alliance between Great Britain and Japan was spurred on by Britain's lack of alliance. It was signed in London by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). It was renewed in 1905 and 1911. It officially terminated in 1923.
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    Balkan nationalism

    The Serbs were the first to become hostile. They hoped for help from Slavic Russia. Because of Russia's weakness after the revolution of 1905 Austria-Hungary is able to officially annex Bosnia and Herzegovina. Without Russian help the Serbs are left angry and powerless.
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    Anglo-French Entente

    Encouraged by French foreign minister, Théophile Delcassé. The French agree to recognize British rule in Egypt if they can have Morocco. This treaty settled all colonial disputes between the two countries up to that point. It later combined with the Franco-Russian Alliance and the Anglo-Russian Agreement of 1907 to become the Triple Entente.
  • Algeciras Conference

    Algeciras Conference
    Took place in Algeciras, Spain. Germany pissed over France's new treaty with Britain tries to claim Morocco for themselves. In the end France got Morocco and became even better buddies with Great Britain.
  • German naval expansion

    German naval expansion
    German nationalist lead by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz thought that to be a powerful nation you must have a large navy.
  • The formation of the Triple Entene

    The formation of the Triple Entene
    The Triple Entente was made up of Great Britain, France, and Russia. Germany saw them as a threat to their rising national status. German's believed that the rest of the world was getting ahead at their and Austria-Hungary's expense. The Triple Entente would end up being one side in World War I. In April of 1915 Italy switches from to Triple Alliance to the Triple Entente.Resources of the Tripple Entente
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    Anglo-Russian Agreement

    Russian joins with Britain, so as to solve their differences in Persia and Central Asia, after being severely weaken by a war with Japan in 1907 and a internal revolution in 1905. Ended in 1918 when the revolutionaries renounced it.
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    The First Balkan War

    The First Balkan War was formed by Serbia Greece and Bulgaria teaming up to attack the Ottoman Empire.
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    The Second Balkan War

    Serbia unhappy about having to give up Albania, due to Austrian intervention, refused to adhere to plans made before the war with Bulgaria about how Macedonia was to be divided up. This causes the former allies to go to war. By the end of these wars the Ottoman Empire is destroyed in Europe.
  • The War Raw Materials Board

    The War Raw Materials Board
    The brain child of the Jewish industrialist Walter Rathenau, this board was designed to ration and distribute raw materials. They also set about an aggressive recycling campaign.
  • Labor Strikes in Germany

    Labor Strikes in Germany
    Labor strikes in Germany challenge the power of the monarchy so they gambol on war hoping to unite the people and take their minds' off unrest at home on focus their thoughts on war.
  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand, a radical group of Serbian nationalist, shot Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the Austria-Hungarian, throne and his wife Sophie on their visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
  • Black check

    Black check
    Emperor William II of Germany's chancellor, Theoblad bon Bethmann-Hollweg, granted Austria-Hungary a blank check and encouraged violence in the Balkans. They knew this would cause Russia to go to war with France at its side, but Bethmann-Hollweg sincerely hoped that Great Britain would remain neutral in this war.
  • Austria-Hungary Ultimatum

    Austria-Hungary Ultimatum
    Serbian response (at the bottom of web page)Austria-Hungary delivers the Serbian government an unconditional ultimatum. It gave them 48 hours to agree to demands and basically secede to Austria-Hungary the control of the Serbian state. They failed to comply and Austria begins to mobilize against them.
  • Russian Mobilization

    Russian Mobilization
    Tsar Nicholas II orders partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary on this date. Finding this could not be done with out also mobilizing against Germany on the 29 full mobilization is ordered. This makes Russia officially at war.
  • Germany attacks

    Germany attacks
    Germany fearing being trapped with war on both sides decides its only chance is a lightning attack on France through neutral Belgium. General Helmuth von Moltke demanded that neutral Belgium allow German armies to pass through its territory. Belgium refuses and Germany attacks.
  • The Schlieffen Plan

    The Schlieffen Plan
    On this date the plan created by Alfred von Schlieffen, known as the Schlieffen plan, was put into action. The Schlieffen Plan was a plan put into place to invade France through Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The plan fails in a way because the Germans never get to Paris.
  • World War

    World War
    Due to the invasion of Belgium by Germany Great Britain joins the war on France's side. The war became a world war on August the 4th as these last two major powers declare war on Germany.
  • Battle of Tannenberg

    Battle of Tannenberg
    This battle took place on the eastern front between Germany and Russia. Although it occurred near Allenstein, the battle is named after Tannenberg, to counter the defeat of the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) in 1410. Germany lead by Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff crush the Russian second army.
  • Battle of the Masurian Lakes

    Battle of the Masurian Lakes
    Russian First Army, commanded by Rennenkampf was destroyed by Paul von Hindenburg's German eight army. It pushes the Russians out of Germany and messes up their war plans.
  • Battle of the Marne

    Battle of the Marne
    In the Battle of the Marne the French armies attacked a gap in the German line. It was a three day all out attack by France that even enlisted help from the Parisian taxi service. It ended in a German retreat. After this battle both sides settled in and began digging trenches.
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    Race to the Sea

    After the First Battle of the Marne the Allied and Central Powers found themselves dead locked, staring at other from their respective trenches. They dug extensive trenches in attempts to out flank each other throughout Western France all the way to the North Sea. By the end they had a continuous front line of trench fortifications more than 200 miles long.
  • The start of Total War

    The start of Total War
    Upon figuring out they could not win the war running the country as they had before the governments took control of the economy. They controlled what was produced and what was consumed. Controls were placed on wages and worker movements. These plans encompassed the total population, hence the title total war.
  • The beginnings of trench warfare

    The beginnings of trench warfare
    After the Battle of the Marne both sides on the western front settled down into trenches. They took the first steps into one of the bloodiest kinds of war. In trench warfare it is easy to lose a lot of men and barley gain any ground. In 1915 the Allied forced gained no more than three miles. This warfare killed off most of a generation of young men and left the rest bitter and shell-shocked.
  • Chirstmas Truce

    Chirstmas Truce
    On Christmas eve and Christmas day a series of unofficial cease fires took place on the Western Front. During the week leading up to Christmas German and British soldiers began to exchange seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches. On occasion individuals would walk across to talk to their opposite numbers bearing gifts. On Christmas Eve and Christmas Day soldiers from both sides ventured into no man's land, and exchanged food and souvenirs.
  • The sinking of the Lusitania

    The sinking of the Lusitania
    The Lusitania was a British passenger liner that was sunk in the British war zone by a Germany submarine. The Lusitania was also carring arms and munitions. President Woodrow Willson complained enough that Germans backed off submarine attacks for the next couple of years.
  • Battle of Verdun

    Battle of Verdun
    The Battle of Verdun lasted until the nineteenth of December. There was over an estimated 700,000 casualties. It was over an area less than ten kilometers square that had no real stratigic value.
  • Anti-war demonstrations in Berlin

    Anti-war demonstrations in Berlin
    Anti-war demonstrations lead by socialist Karl Liebknecht met up in Berlin and shouted "Down with the government! Down with the war!" Liebknecht was arrested.
  • Battle of Somme

    Battle of Somme
    The Battle of Somme took place alone the Somme River in France on the opening day of battle the British lost 60,000 men the worst one-day combat losses in its history. Between this and the battle of Verdun Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg of Germany is forced to hand power over to military leaders Hindenburg and Ludendorff in 1917.
  • Assassination of Austria Chief Minister

    Assassination of Austria Chief Minister
    Count Stürgkh the Chief Minister of Austria he was assassinated by socialist Friedrich Adler on October 21, 1916 in a Vienna restaurant. This combined with the death of Emperor Francis Joseph Austria was pretty much done and wanted peace.
  • Auxiliary Service Law

    Auxiliary Service Law
    The Auxiliary Service Law was forced through the Reichstag, the German legislative body. It required all males between seventeen and sixty to work jobs that were somehow beneficial to the war effort.
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    David Lloyd George, Great Britain's Prime Minister

    He was a liberal, Welsh Prime Minister. He was upset by Germany's increased navy because it meant that money from the "People's budget" would be spent on increasing the British fleet instead of social welfare.
  • Arab Revolt

    Arab Revolt
    Lead by the British Lawrence of Arabia, Arabians began to revolt against their Turkish overlords, the Ottoman Turks. The Lawrence of Arabia encourages to Arabian leaders to attack the railroads instead of trying to retake Medina. With help from British in Egypt the Ottoman empire is smashed.
  • Unrestricted submarine warfare

    Unrestricted submarine warfare
    Unrestricted submarine warfare is declared by Germany in 1917, and basically means the German's will sink any ship merchant or navy without warning.
  • The U.S. declares war

    The U.S. declares war
    On this date the United States of America joins World War I by declaring war on Germany.
  • Balfour Declaration

    Balfour Declaration
    This declaration made the British foreign minister Arthur Balfour, announced that Britain liked the idea of a "National Home for the Jewish People" in Palestine. They thought it would appeal to German, Austrian and American Jews, but did not consider the feelings of those already living in Palestine. This was simply a move by the British to gain war support.
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    Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau

    He served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909, and again from 1917 to 1920. After World War I he was determined to have revenge on Germany. He wanted a buffer state in between France and Germany. He was afraid that one day Germany would once again attack France and he wanted to everything within his power to prevent that from happening.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    On this date the military haven taken virtual dictatorship of the German government pass the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was between Germany and Russia. It was Russia's exit from World War I, and it affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania.
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    It was the last major German Spring Offensive on the Western It Front. The German attack failed and Allied counterattack with the aid of 140,000 fresh American troops overwhelmed the Germans.
  • New Government

    On this date seeing the end Ludendorff forms a new liberal government in hopes of suing for peace. Woodrow Willson refuses to meet with a government that was not popularly elected
  • German Revolution of 1918

    German Revolution of 1918
    It replaced Germany's dictatorship with a republic. This republic lasted until the Weimar Republic in August of 1919. It began with the Wilhelmshaven mutiny, a revolt by the German sailor, in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel, It then spread across the country. In the end the moderate socialists and liberals won.
  • German surrender

    German surrender
    Socialist leaders seize control in Berlin proclaiming a German republic and agreeing the the Allied terms of surrender.
  • Armistice with Germany

    Armistice with Germany
    The armistice with Germany that ended the fighting in World War I was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest. It was technically not a surrender but it still represented a total victory for the allies. It included the withdrawal of German, the preservation of infrastructure, the exchange of prisoners, a promise of reparations, what was to happen to the German warships and submarines, and conditions concerning the armistice.
  • War Guilt Clause

    War Guilt Clause
    The war guilt clause once signed basically admitted that World War I was entirely their fault and therefore it was also their jobs to pay any and all reparations. It was a hash clause on the Versailles treaty, because Germany had to sign this treaty they also had to sign on for this clause that was basically the Allied Powers way of say we won and we can make you do whatever we want.
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    Peace Conference of Paris 1919

    Was a meeting of the victorious Allied powers to decide what would be done with Germany and the other losers after World War I. They reshaped the map of Europe and laid heavy reparations on Germany. The "Big Four" were at the center they were President Woodrow Wilson of the USA, and Prime Ministers David Lloyd George of Great Britain and Georges Clemenceau of France. Also attending was Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy who although technically part of the big four did not play a big roll
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    League of Nations

    The League of Nations was an international peacekeeping organization. They originally met in Geneva once a year. Strangely enough although the League was the brainchild of Woodrow Wilson the U.S. never joined it. They had no army and had to rely on boycotts to accomplish anything. Without any real power they unable to stop World War II and are later disbanded with the formation of the United Nations.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    This treaty between the Allied powers and Germany was the first step toward re-establishing order. Germany is forced to give up it colonial holdings and Alsace and Lorraine. It also gives up the parts of it that are predominantly Polish to the new Poland. Germany also has to pay huge reparations equal to the coast to a all civilian damages caused by the war. They are also banned from having an army larger than 100,000 men strong. All other opposing countries got their own separate treaties.
  • All Quiet on the Western Front

    All Quiet on the Western Front
    All Quiet on the Western Front is written by Remarque describes a battle on the western front as
    We see men living with their skulls blown open; we see soldiers run with their two feet cut off.... Still the little piece of convulsed earth in which we lie is held. We have yielded no more than a few hundred yards of it as a prize to the enemy. But on every yard there lies a dead man.