Twentieth Century History

  • Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary

    Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary
    A defensive alliance that would lead to the triple alliance of the First World War (Alliances of the cause of the war).
  • European Imperialism

    European Imperialism
    Countries raced to gather colonies in Africa and Asia and the Americas in the 19th and early 20th centuries (Imperialism as a couse of war).
  • HMS Dreadnought is launched

    HMS Dreadnought is launched
    New type of British battleship, sparked the Anglo-German naval arms race (Militarism as the cause of the war).
  • Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

    Franz Ferdinand Assassinated
    Franz Ferdinand was the Archduke of Austrio-Hungary, and was heir to the throne. He was killed by the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, and this assassination set in motion a series of events that culminated in the world's first global war (Nationalism as a cause of war).
  • Germany assures Support to Austria-Hungary

    Germany assures Support to Austria-Hungary
    After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28th, the Austrian government approached Germany for a vow of support in case of war with Serbia.

    Germany promises support to Austria-Hungary in case of war.
  • Ultimatum Issued to Serbia in response to Assassination

    Ultimatum Issued to Serbia in response to Assassination
    After the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the Austria-Hungary government put together a list of conditions that Serbia had to meet within two days or war would be declared.
  • Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia!

    Austria-Hungary Declares war on Serbia!
    After the Serbian government failed to comply with the ultimatum issued by Austria-Hungary, war was declared.
  • Russia Mobilizes its Army to support Serbia

    Russia Mobilizes its Army to support Serbia
    Russia had a long standing alliance with Serbia, and immediately after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia - the Russians began mobilizing their massive army to support their Serbian allies.
  • Germany Warns Russia to Stop

    Germany Warns Russia to Stop
    Germany (who is allied with Austria-Hungary) warns Russia to stop mobilizing their army towards Serbia. Russia replies to the Germans that the mobilization is against Austria-Hungary only, and not against Germany.
  • Germany Declares war on Russia

    Germany Declares war on Russia
    Russia refused to comply with the German demand that they stop their support for Serbia, so they immediately declared war on Russa.
  • Germany signs secret Alliance with Ottoman Empire

    Germany signs secret Alliance with Ottoman Empire
    Germany quietly signed a treaty with the Ottomans which would help them in South East Europe.
  • Germany Declares War on France

    Germany Declares War on France
    Germany knew that France had an alliance with Russia, and they had just declared war on Russia days earlier.
  • France declares war on Germany

    France declares war on Germany
    Two days after declaring war on Russia, Germany declares war on France.
  • Germany Invades Belgium

    Germany Invades Belgium
    Germany had declared war on France, but rather than attack France through the heavily defended French/German border, the Germans pushed through the small peaceful country of Belgium to quickly get into France.
  • UK Declares war on Germany

    UK Declares war on Germany
    Once the Germans had invaded Belgium, the United Kingdom saw this as a clear violation of the Belgian Neutral Treaty and declared war on Germany in response.
  • CANADA DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY

    CANADA DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY
    In 1914, Canada was still a dominion of the UK, so their involvement in WW1 was automatic once the UK declared war on Germany. The level of involvement was still up to the Canadian government so to show support of the war effort - the Governor General of Canada formally declared war on Germany on August 5, 1914.
  • Battle of the Marne starts

    Battle of the Marne starts
    The German offensive to capture Paris is haulted and the battlefield becomes static as lines of trenches are dug.
  • Turkey entered the war on Germany's side

    Turkey entered the war on Germany's side
    Turkey represented a threat to Russia, France, and Britain in the Middle East.
  • Second Battle of Ypres

    Second Battle of Ypres
    Canada's first major battle and also the first large use of poison gas. The Canadian's held the line.
  • Gallipoli Campaign

    Gallipoli Campaign
    The British Empire attacks Turkey, but suffers a major defeat. First battle for Newfoundlanders.
  • The passenger ship "Lusitania" is sunk by German U-boat

    The passenger ship "Lusitania" is sunk by German U-boat
    1198 people were killed when the Lusitania was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. This sinking sparked outrage against the Germans, and sparked the American entry into WW1.
  • Italy declares war on Germany & Austria

    Italy declares war on Germany & Austria
  • Conscription Introduced in Britain

    Conscription Introduced in Britain
    In early 1916, the British government decided to draft all eligible men into the armed forces to fight against the Germans. This helped to increase the size of the army very quickly.
  • Battle of Jutland

    Battle of Jutland
    Only major naval battle of the war, no clear winner between British and Germans.
  • Start of the Battle of the Somme

    Start of the Battle of the Somme
    Major British offensive on the Western front, they suffered 60, 000
    casualties on the first day. Battle ends November 18.
  • Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare

    Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare
    Britains food life line is in danger but this action draws United States into the war.
  • Germany's Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Started

    Germany's Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Started
    Germany decided to attack any type of allied ships, which put women and children at risk. This ruthless strategy by the Germans finally drove the Americans to enter WW1.
  • Tsar Nicholas II abdicates the Russian throne

    Tsar Nicholas II abdicates the Russian throne
    End of the Russian royal family and beginning of communists in Russia.
  • USA Declares War on Germany

    USA Declares War on Germany
  • US declares war on Germany

    US declares war on Germany
    Signaled the United States entry to the war on the British side.
  • Battle of Vimy Ridge

    Battle of Vimy Ridge
    The Canadian corps captures the strategic Vimy Ridge in France.
  • Battle of Passchendaele

    Battle of Passchendaele
    Canadians fight for weeks in waist deep mud with little gained.
  • Military Service Act passed in Ottawa

    Military Service Act passed in Ottawa
    Conscripted Canadian men, bitterly divided Canadian society between English and French Canada.
  • Armistice Signed Between Russia and Germany

    Armistice Signed Between Russia and Germany
  • Canadian federal election

    Canadian federal election
    Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden wins the election after giving soldiers and women with family in the field a right to vote.
  • Germany Starts Offensive in Flanders

    Germany Starts Offensive in Flanders
    Many Canadian soldiers were killed in Flanders....
  • The Murder of the Russian Royal Family

    The Murder of the Russian Royal Family
    Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and children, are murdered by the Bolsheviks.
  • Start of the 100 Days

    Start of the 100 Days
    Beginning of major allied offensive pushing Germans back towards Germany. The Canadian corps is at the spear head.
  • Germany Signs Armistice with Allies - War is Over!

    Germany Signs Armistice with Allies - War is Over!
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    Allies redraw the map of Europe and place all blame for the war on Germany. They force Germany to pay reparations.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Peace treaty for Germany and the allies. Article 231 (War Guilt clause) made Germany responsible for the war. Germany was forced to disarm and make territoral concessions and pay reperations $31 billion US.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    International organization intended to maintain world peace. Failed in its mission.
  • The Founding of the Fascist Party

    The Founding of the Fascist Party
    The National Fascist party was an italion right wing political party led by Benito Mussolini
  • Joseph Stalin becomes the leader of the Soviet Union

    Joseph Stalin becomes the leader of the Soviet Union
    After the founder of the communist party died, Stalin took control of the Russian communist party and became a dictator
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    Agreement between Germany and Russia (Soviet Union). Economic and political cooperation - both countries are outsiders in Europe.
  • Benito Mussolini comes to power in Italy

    Benito Mussolini comes to power in Italy
    Mussolini led a march on Rome, and was given the position of Prime Minister from the King of Italy
  • The Munich Putsch

    The Munich Putsch
    The Munich Putsh was a failed attempt to overthrow the givernment led by Adolf Hitler
  • Hyperinflation in Germany

    Hyperinflation in Germany
    Germans couldn't pay so they started printing money that was worth nothing. Britain and Framce could not repay debt to the US, so US started to suffer which lead to the Depression.
  • Hitler writes Mein Kampft

    Hitler writes Mein Kampft
    An autobiography where Hitler outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany
  • Japan invades Manchuri

    Japan invades Manchuri
    The japenese invade Manchuria, Japanese imperialsim in Asia
  • HItler comes to power as the head of the Nazi Party

    HItler comes to power as the head of the Nazi Party
    Hitler's Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag and so Hitler was invited to become leader of Germany
  • The Night of the Long Knives

    The Night of the Long Knives
    A series of political murders of Hitlers apponants and critics
  • Italian invasion of Ethiopia

    Italian invasion of Ethiopia
    Italy attempted to recreate the Roman Empire, and the League of Nations did nothing to oppose Missolini
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland

    Remilitarization of the Rhineland
    Violated the the Treaty of Versaillies and angered France. League of Nations does nothing (saw the treaty as too harsh on Germany).
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland

    Remilitarization of the Rhineland
    Hitler stations soldiers in the Rhineland against the French border which was against the ruling of the Treaty of Versaillies
  • Japanese invasion of China

    Japanese invasion of China
    Japan invades China, imperialism in Asia
  • Anschluss of Germany and Austria

    Anschluss of Germany and Austria
    Hitler ignores the rules of the Treaty of Versaillies and annaxes Austria
  • The Munich Crisis

    The Munich Crisis
    The German speaking a portion of Czechoslovakia is given to Germany to avoid war, British prime minister Neville Chamberlain announces that he and Hitler have achieved "peace in our time"
  • Kristallnacht

    Kristallnacht
    A series of deadly attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria
  • Absorption of the rest of Czechoslovakia

    Absorption of the rest of Czechoslovakia
    Germany takes the rest of Czechoslovakia and makes the Munich pact of a lie
  • German-Soviet Non-aggression pact

    German-Soviet Non-aggression pact
    Stalin and Hitler agreed not to fight each other, which was a huge shock to the world
  • Germany invades Poland

    Germany invades Poland
    Hitler invades Poland, Germany unleashes Blitzkrieg (lightning war - a fast paced mobile war)
  • Britain, France declare war on Germany

    Britain, France declare war on Germany
    After Hitler invades Poland, Briatin and France declare war on Germany
  • Period: to

    Battle of the Atlantic

    The big fight over the control of the Atlantic Ocean. The allies sent convoys of ships to Britain with soldiers, weaons, food, and German submarines tried to sink them
  • Period: to

    The Phony War

    After Britain and France declare war on Germany, they do nothing for almost 8 months
  • Canada declares war on Germany

    Canada declares war on Germany
    The Canadina Government are able to declare war as an independent country
  • Establishment of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

    Establishment of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
    A plan to train pilots in Canada, Britain, Australia, and New Zealand all participated
  • Germany invades Denmark, Norway

    Germany invades Denmark, Norway
    Germany invades Denmark, Norway. This marks the end of the Phony War
  • Germany invades the Netherlands and Belgium

    Germany invades the Netherlands and Belgium
    Germans invade the Netherlands and Belgium, Britain and France prepare to defend Western Europe against the German blitzkrieg
  • Germany invades France

    Germany invades France
    Germany invades France, France unable to contain blitzkrieg
  • Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister

    Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister
    Chamberlain resignes after British defeat in Norway and Churchill becomes Prime Minister
  • Operation Dynamo

    Operation Dynamo
    Also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, evacuation of allied soldiers from France to Britain
  • France surrenders

    France surrenders
    France surrendors to Germany and Britain stands alone
  • Period: to

    The Battle of Britain

    A massive air battle over Britain in anticipation of German invasion, the importance of radar in British victory
  • Germany invades Crete, Greece

    Germany invades Crete, Greece
    Germany invades Greece
  • Germany invades Russia

    Germany invades Russia
    Germany invades Russia, breaks the non-aggression pact
  • Japan attacks Pearl Harbour

    Japan attacks Pearl Harbour
    Japan launches a surprise attack on the american hawaiian base
  • The United States declares war on Japan

    The United States declares war on Japan
    President Franklin Roosevelt signs the declaration of war against Japan, the US is now an active participant in the war
  • Germany declares war on the US

    Germany declares war on the US
    Germany declared war on the US for no good reason, US didn't want anything to do with the war going on in Europe. The declaration of war brought the US into Europe which pleased Churchill
  • The Fall of Hong Kong

    The Fall of Hong Kong
    Nearly 2000 Canadians are killed, wounded, or captured when the Japanese captured the British colony of Hong Kong, this is the first time Canadian soldiers see combat in WWII
  • Beginning of internment of Japanese-Canadians by federal government

    Beginning of internment of Japanese-Canadians by federal government
    Japanese Canadians are forced to move away from the coast to prevent sabatoge in case of a Japanese invasion, family's were seperated, their property was confiscated and sold by the Canadian government
  • Wannsee Conference

    Wannsee Conference
    At this conference German leaders decide to impliment the Final Solution to the Jewish question by sending them to extermination camps. This is the beginning of the final phase of the Holocaust
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    Americans stop Japanese advance across the Pacific Ocean, sinking 4 aircraft carriers
  • D-Day

    D-Day
    The liberation of France begins, with Canadians landing on Juno beach, one of 5 Allied invasion beaches in Normandy
  • Dieppe Raid

    Dieppe Raid
    5,000 Canadians involved in a failed raid on the French town of Dieppe, 3,500 casualties were either killed, wounded, or captured
  • Period: to

    Battle of Stalingard

    Russians stop Germans advancing into Russia, German 6th Army is destroyed
  • Period: to

    Battle of El Alamein

    Germans was trying to capture the Suez Canal in Egypt and the British army stopped them, this was the first time the British succeeded in stopping a German attack
  • Canadians participate in the invasion of Sicily and Italy

    Canadians participate in the invasion of Sicily and Italy
    The first invasion of mainland Europe by the allies, the invasion of mainland Itlay in september 1943 causing the Italians to overthrow Missiliani and surrender. Itlay joins the allies in the war agaisnt Germany
  • Battle of Ortona

    Battle of Ortona
    Canada's most significant battle, was a battle between Canadians and Germans. Known for its bloody street fighting
  • Conscription crisis

    Conscription crisis
    Reoccurrence of conscription crisis in Canada due to heavy losses in Europe, conscripts begin to be sent overseas. Deep resentment between English and French Canadians
  • VE-Day

    VE-Day
    Germany formally surrenders, ending the war in Europe
  • Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshama

    Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshama
    Beginning of the nuclear age when the US uses the atomic bomb for the first time, second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki on August 9
  • VJ-Day

    VJ-Day
    Japan surrenders, ending the WWII
  • The Founding of the United Nations

    The Founding of the United Nations
    The United Nations is astablished to promote international peace and cooperation, Canada is a founding member
  • Period: to

    The Nuremberg Trials

    Military trials of the political, military, and economic leaders of Nazi Germany who allegedly participaated in the Holocaust and other war crimes