Trenches 1

20th Century History

By mt99
  • Militarism

    Military given high profile from government. Growing european divide led to arms race between main countries. Armies from both France & Germany had more then doubled between 1870-1914. Fierce competition between Britian and Germany for mastery of the seas.
  • Period: to

    20th century history

  • Alliences

    A number of alliances were formed by countries between 1879-1914. Were important because they mean't that some countries had no choice but to declare war if one of their alies declared first.
  • Imperialism

    When a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule. By 1900s the British empire extended over five continents and France had control of large parts of africa. With rise of industrialism Countries needed new markets. Amount of lands "owned" by France and Britain increased rivalry with Germany who entered the scramble to acquire colonies late & only had small areas of Africa.
  • Nationalism

    Mens to be a strong supporter of ones countries rights & interests. Congress of Vienna aimed to sort out problems in europe & make a new europe. Delagates from Russia, Austria, Prussia, Britian. Left Germany & Italy out as seperate states. Strong nationalistic elements led to unification of Italy in 1861 & Germany in 1871. Settlement at end of Franco-Prussian war left France angry over loss of Alstia to Germany, keen to regain territory.
  • Dual Alliance is formed

    Dual Alliance is formed
    germany and Austria-Hungary formed an Alliance to protect themselves from Russia
  • Austro-Serbian Alliance is formed

    Austro-Serbian Alliance is formed
    (for events I don't know the exact date for I will put at the 1st of January) The alliance is formed to stop Russia fom gaining control of Serbia.
  • Triple alliance is formed

    Triple alliance is formed
    Germany and Austria-Hungary form an alliance with Italy to prevent Italy siding with Russia.
  • Alliance is formed between Russia and France

    Alliance is formed between Russia and France
    Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • Entente Cordiale formed

    Entente Cordiale formed
    The Entente Cordiale was an agreement made between Britain and France, but it was not an offical alliance.
  • Moroccan Crisis

    Moroccan Crisis
    Morocco was given to France by Britian. Morrocans wanted independance. Germany announced its support for Moroccos independance. War narrowly avoided by a conference allowing France to retain Morocco. In 1911 Germany protested again, Britian supported France and germany was persuaded to back down for part of French Congo.
  • Arms Race

    Arms Race
  • Anglo-Russian Entente

    Anglo-Russian Entente
    An agreement formed between Britain and Russia, but it was not an officail alliance.
  • Triple Entente

    Triple Entente
    Made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increaing threat from Germany.
  • Bosnian Crisis

    Bosnian Crisis
    Austria-Hungary took over province of Bosnia. Angered Serbians who thought it should be theres. Serbia threatened Austria-Hungary with war. Russia being allied with Serbia mobilized troops. germany being allied with Austria-Hungary mobilized troops. War was prevented when Russia backed down. However, there was war in the Balkons 1911-1912 when Serbia drove Turkey out of area. Fought about which area should be whos. Austria intervened and forced Serbia to give up some acquistions. Tension high.
  • Revolt broke out in Morocco

    Revolt broke out in Morocco
    A revolt broke out in Morocco in the spring of 1911 which confined the Sultan to his palace.
  • French troops moved to Morocco

    A large amount of French troops were moved into Morocco in support of the Sultan.
  • Black hand formed

    Black hand formed
    The Black Hand was formed by Colonel Apis and ten other men. The aim of this group was to build a Greater Serbian Empire
  • Second Morroco Crisis

    Germany sent a gunboat to the Moroccon port of Agadir in protest at France's increasing military presence in Morocco. Britian anounced that they would stand by France. This threatened to result in War
  • Russia announced they were reconstructing their army

  • Germany said she would stand by Austria

    germany announced that if Austria-Hungary was forced into war, she would stand with them
  • Black hand growing

    Black hand growing
    At the time of 1913 the Black Hand group was growing in numbers. it had a menership of about 2,500 people including military and government officails.
  • French president wanted to improve relations with Germany

    French president wanted to improve relations with Germany
    The new French President, Raymond Poincaré, favoured a policy of trying to improve relations with Germany rather than pursuing a military solution. Germany on the other hand favoured a policy of war against France and intended to use General Schlieffen's plan to overpower France if war break out.
  • Armed race resulted in growing military in all European powers.

    Armed race resulted in growing military in all European powers.
    Britain - 29 dreadnoughts and 9 dreadnought battle cruisers
    Germany - 17 dreadnoughts and 7 dreadnought battle cruisers (photo of the German SMS Nassau)
  • Prominent Serbian Military men armed and trained three Bosnian students

    Prominent Serbian Military men armed and trained three Bosnian students
    They trained Gavrilo Princip (who assasinated Francis ferdinand) Nedeljko Cabrinovic and Trifko Grabez, in explosives. They were then smuggled back to Bosnia. Their mission was to assassinate the archduke of Austria-Hungary.
  • Assassination of Francis Ferdinand (Cause)

    Assassination of Francis Ferdinand (Cause)
    The trigger of WW1
  • Austrian Government blamed Serbia for Assassination

    Austria-Hungary subsequently issued an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, it was partially rejected. Believed Sebia was part of the Assassination. Did not declare War as Serbia was Allied with Russia
  • Kaiser Wilhelm

    Kaiser Wilhelm
    He agreed German support for Austria against Serbia.
  • Austria declared war on Serbia

    When serbia did not agree with the ultimatum, Austria declared War.
  • Germany declared war on Russia

    Germany being allied with Austria-Hungary declared War on Russia
  • Germany declared war on France

    Germany declared war on France as it was allied with Russia
  • Britain declared war on Germany

    Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgium's neutrality
  • Japan declared war on Germany

    Japan, being allies with Britain declared war on Germany
  • Turkey formed an alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany

  • Russia declared war on Turkey

  • Britian and Frnace declared war on Turkey

  • Italy declared war on Germany

  • Italy joined the Allies

    Italy changed sides and Joined the allies
  • USA declared war on Germany

  • Battle of Vimy ridge (3,598 Canadians killed, 7,000 injured. defining moment for Canada

    Battle of Vimy ridge (3,598 Canadians killed, 7,000 injured. defining moment for Canada
    1st time all 4 Canadain divisions attacked together. Stormed ridge at 5:30. More then 15,000 Canadian infantry overran Germans all along front. Countless acts of sacrific as troops single handediy charged machine gun nests/ forced surrender of Germans in protective dugouts. Hill 145, where the monument stands today, captured in frontal bayonet charge against machinegun positions. 3 days of battle gave way to victory. Was an important success even if British/French offensive, it waspart of failed
  • USA declared war on Austria-Hungary

  • Treaty of Versailles presented to German leaders

    Treaty of Versailles presented to German leaders
    Viewing German as chief instigator of conflict, European powers imposed stringent obligations. Worst being "War guilt clause" forcing Germany to accept responsibility for the war. Were forbidden to have an airforce. Required to conduct war crime preceedings to Kaiser & other leaders for waging agressive wa. Forced to concede territories to Belguim, Hultschin district, poland. Returned Alsace/lorraine to France. All oversea colonies became league of Nations Mandates. City of Danzig, free city
  • Treaty of Versailles signed

    Treaty of Versailles signed
    one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  • League of Nations Founded

    League of Nations Founded
    Made as a result of Paris peace conference that ended WW1. International organization formed after WW1 under provisions of treaty of Versailles. Forerunner to united nations, brought about much international cooperation on health, labor problems, refugee affairs, etc. Was, however, too weak to stop Great Powers going to war in 1939.
  • Nazi party formed

    Nazi party formed
    Hitler giving emotional speeches between February and March.
  • Stalin becomes General Secretary

    Stalin becomes General Secretary
    The Soviet Communist Party appoints Josef Stalin as General Secretary. at the height of WWII, Stalin and the Soviets become part of the Allied forces.
  • failure of appeasement

    failure of appeasement
    means: giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable. During the 1930s, many politicians in both Britain and France came to see that the terms of the Treaty of Versailles had placed restrictions on Germany that were unfair. Hitler's actions were seen as understandable and justifiable.When Germany began re-arming in 1934, many politicians felt that Germany had a right to re-arm in order to protect herself.
  • Failture of the League of Nations

    Failture of the League of Nations
    Japan was hit with a depression in 1931. People lost hope in the government and turned to the army causing the army to invade Manchuria, China as it was rich with resources. the League of nations tried to stop the conflict but failed.
    The main reasons for the league of nations failing was: Not all countries were part of it, it had no power, it had no army and was unable to act quickly.
  • Hitler becomes chancellor

    Hitler becomes chancellor
    Almost immediately he began secretly building up Germany's army and weapons. In 1934 he increased the size of the army, began building warships and created a German airforce. Compulsory military service was also introduced. Britain and France were both aware of his actions but did not want to start another war.
  • Hitler becomes head of state

    Hitler becomes head of state
    After a long wait, Hitler receives the Führer of Germany title, making him chancellor and head of state. The war guilt clause, its incumbent reparation payments, and the limitations on the German military were particularly onerous in the minds of most Germans, and revision of the Versailles Treaty represented one of the platforms that gave radical right wing parties in Germany, including Hitler's Nazi Party, such credibility to mainstream voters in the 1920s and early 1930s.
  • After depression in Germany

    After years of unemployment in Germany, people started working again. Everyone was earning good money and the industry was getting stronger. Those in support of the Nazi policy believed the Jews were to blame for unemployment.
  • Soviet Union 1939

    Country under Stalin's control. Starvation had killed 6 million people. During prewar years, Stalin claimed the lives of nearly 700,000 people
  • Bavaria Germany 1939

    In the summer of 1939, Hitler decided to invade Poland. He had to make sure the Soviet Union would not defend them in alliance with France and Britain.
  • Hitler made a deal with Stalin

    On August 29th, Hitler made a deal with Stalin. Pact contained a secret clause, an agreement to carve up Eastern Europe.
  • WW2 Begins

    WW2 Begins
    Trigger of WW2 was Germany invading Poland causing Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
  • Britain marches to war

    British ambassador sent Hitler an ultimatum to withdraw troops from Poland. No reply and the ultimatum expired. Britian was then at war with Germany.
  • Germany had conquered Poland

    By September 27th, Germany had conquered Poland. Thousands of people were buried alive under the ruins of the cities. Hitler now turned his attention to the West.
  • France May 1940

    German troops stormed into France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Denmark and Norway had already fallen. British troops were retreating. The population of France were terrified of the Germans
  • France june 1940

    By the end of May, the allies in France were beaten. June 17th, the war for France was over and lost, Now it was Britain's turn.
  • London September 1940

    To resist an expected Nazi invasion, Britain created a new defence force known as the Home Guard.
    Heavy bombing on British cities began.
  • A massive bomb wad dropped causing tons of destruction

  • German occupied Yugoslavia April 1941

    An s.s oficer and 9 German pop. killed by Serbian resistance. Rumours that people were being executed in afternoon. No one really knew why the people taken to be executed were selected. A few were fighters but more were normal Surbs. They were hanging people . Not a week went by without Partizans being killed for shooting Germans. Peopler were hung from lamp posts in town, sometimes for almost a week.
  • Poland 1941

    Poland 1941
    Nazis saw Jews and Slavs as "subhuman" and thought they belonged in the ghettos. Jews had to wear a star of David on their arms, had arm bands. If Germans saw a Jew without or with a dirt arm band, they beat them. There were a lot of staving chuldren without parents at this time. Deportation from the Ghettos to camps began. Started rounding up women and children.
  • Heaviest period of bombing was between Nov. 1940 and May 1941

    Heaviest period of bombing was between Nov. 1940 and May 1941
    Heaviest period of bombing was between November 1940 and may 1941, 40,000 people were killed and over 2 million homes were destroyed. By spring 1941, the Battle of Britain was won.
    German plan for invasion was postponed.
    Hitler prepared for a new war, an invasion of the Soviet Union.
  • Bavaria Germany 1941

    Bavaria Germany 1941
    By spring, Hitler had decided to break the non-aggression pact he had with Stalin. Under the the code name Barbarossa, planned invasion of the Soviet Union. It was to be a war of extermination, very different from the one in the west.
    3 million men began to move to the East. Eve of operation Barbarossa, German officers toasted the largest invasion force in history.
  • German troops cross the boarder

    On June 22, German troops crossed the Russian boarder. Over 3,000 tanks attacked on 3 fronts stretching 1,000 miles from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
  • Germans advanced rapidly

    German advance was rapid up to 40 miles a day capturing vast areas of the Soviet Union. Over 3 million Soviet soldiers were captured. In 6 months, 600,000 prisoners died. In august 1941, Hitler visited the Eastern front. German tanks now approached Moscow. By December that year, the Germans still failed to take Moscow.
  • Pearl Harbour 1941

    Pearl Harbour 1941
    In December that year, USA entered the war and Japan bombed Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. What started as a European conflict had evolved into a World War
  • Hitler declaired War against the USA

  • Roosevelt signs order 9066

    Roosevelt signs order 9066
    Also known as the Japanese-American Internment Act, placing all people of Japanese descent in camps.
  • USA surrender Philippines to Japan

  • The Battle of Midway

    Japanese turn back with heavy losses
  • Poland 1942

    Summer of 1942, 265,000 men/women/children were taking from ghettos to death camps.
  • U.s marines land in Guadalcanal being the Island hopping assaults on Japan

  • Battle of Stalingrad Begins

    Battle of Stalingrad Begins
    Recognised as the biggest battle in the war
  • Revenue act of 1942

    Increases income tax and corporate rates to pay for the cost of war.
  • Stalingrad Russia, 1942

    German troops experience defeat for the first time in the winter of 1942, Hitler and Stalin order that there be no surrender. Battle took over 600,000 lives. German soldier received very little food. Air attacks occurred in the night time bombing them.
  • Casablanca Conference

    Roosevelt, Winston Churchill along with some French reps meet in Morocco to discus the Casablanca Declaration. The goal of the declaration was to get the Axis powers to surrender
  • Mao Zedong names the first chairman of the China communist party

    Mao Zedong names the first chairman of the China communist party
  • British and US troops invade Italy

    They landed in Sicily
  • Stalingrad symbolic turning point of the war.

    In the summer of 1943, massive tank battles gave the men and women of the red army the momentum to push the Germans back. Millions were killed on the Eastern front.
  • Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai Shek meet at the Cairo Conference

    November 22-26
  • Roosevelt, Churchill, stalin meet in Teheran Iran

    Considered the big three allied leaders
  • The Allies landed in Italy at anzio

    Known as Operation Shingle
  • D-Day

    Allies invade and regain Europe on D-Day also known as the greatest military invasion in history beginning with the Normandy Landings
  • Servicemen's Regiment act becomes a law.

    Its best known as the I.G bill
  • Battle of Leyte

    Battle of Leyte
    This is where Douglas MacArthur's troops landed in the Philippines
  • Roosevelt wins his 4th term as president of the USA

    Roosevelt wins his 4th term as president of the USA
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    In response to the invasion of Normandy, Germany went on the offensive in what was known as the Battle of the Bulge
  • Yalta conference

    Yalta conference
    February 4-1: the "big three" allies discussed post war Europe
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    U.S troops land in Okinawa and a battle takes place
  • President Roosevelt Passes away :(

    President Roosevelt Passes away :(
    He passes after serving 4 terms as President
  • Hitler commits suicide knowing that he has lost

    Hitler commits suicide knowing that he has lost
  • War begins to end

    War begins to end when Germany starts surrendering
  • United Nations charter is signed and replaces League of Nations

    United Nations charter is signed and replaces League of Nations
  • The Manhattan Project

    The Manhattan Project
    Manhattan Project detonates the worlds first atomic bomb :0
  • Truman, Churchill and stalin meet for 2 weeks

    They meet for two weeks to discuss post war Europe at the Potsdam Conference
  • First Atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima and two days later on Nagasaki

    First Atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima and two days later on Nagasaki
  • The War is over!

    Japan surrenders ending the war
  • Terms of Surrender

    Japanese reps. sign the Terms of Surrender on the USS Missouri
  • North and South Korea created

    North and South Korea created
    The USA divides the Korean Peninsula along the 38th parallel creating the North and South Koreas.
  • Nuremberg trials

    The Nuremberg Trials begin in Germany prosecuting leaders of the Nazi party