Before the Great War

  • Period: to

    Bismarck in Offiice

  • Austria Defeated in Austro-Prussian war

    Defeat undermined the interantional status of the Empire and threatened its very existence, no longer a german power or italian power. These failures reduced AH policy from foreign policy to BALKAN POLICY. Pro-German and anti-Russian! AH wanted to expand their trading capabilities, figured they could get bigger if they had more influence in the Balkans becauase this creates both new resources for AH and also new buyers and a bigger market. Russia wanted to expand into there to make the country
  • Austria defeated in Austro-Prussian war

    Russia wanted the balkans to expand into so that the country would get even bigger because this seems to be how Russia likes to conduct foreign policy. they want to make everyone scared of them becuase of their size, bc usually when you are big that means you are strong, however not always int he case of Russia, this is seen in the Russo-Japanese war. Also Russia wanted it because it was full of Slavs and the Russian people are Slavic sooo
  • Dual Monarchy Created

    The Dual Monarchy is created after the Austro-Prussian war, it is between Austria and Hungary to create Austria-Hungary (Surprisingly(sarcasm)) therefore, the Austrians basically ruled but then the other largest ethnic group would seem like it had its own power, they did this because the ethnic groups were acting up so they decided to 'appease' one of them.
  • France Defeated and Humiliated by Germany

    Germany defeats Francea nd makes it look very weak, this makes France very mad at germany and creates much animosity
  • Industrial Revolution

    Was the start of making a lot of factories and having a lot of factory workers and then bam all of a sudden there are like war threats and everyone starts doing militarism and so then they actually have the means and the ability to fit their growing needs for militaristic things.
  • Germany is Unified

  • A Giant is Born

    Ever since the emergence of the moder state system, the powers at the edge of Europe: GB, France, and Russia, had been exerting pressure ont he center. now for the first time, the denter of Europe was beoming sufficiently powerful to presson the periphery. Now their was a new giant in their midst, Germany, the big head honcho strong person int he middle of Europe.
  • Bismarckian system

    This is conceived to avoid dangerous diplomatic alignments, and trying to preserve the status quo of the early 1870s. System sought to avoid tensions between Russiand and AH in eastern Europe,a nd to ensure that France could not organize a diplomatic alliance for the purpose fo avengiing its degeat at German hands in 1870-1871 At its cornerstone was the isolation of France.
  • Three Emperor's League

    Put together by Germany in order to try and maintain the stability and balance of Europe at the time, also definitely to try and keep Russia and AH in good terms by allying them together.This worked for a while but then transferred into the dual alliance and the balance was broken
  • Eastern Crisis

    This was a problem having to do with the Eastern Question which was the problems posed by the decline of the Turkish empire which raised prospect of Russian Expansion and A-H expansion and such. This was where the Balkans were so everyone was like about to fight over the Balkans
  • Dual Alliance

    Between Germany and Austria-Hungary::Part of Bismarck’s plan where if you are friends with 2 out of 4 other countries you are the greatest.
    Said that each country would aid the other country if they are attacked by Russia specifically or if Russia aided another country in attacking either Germany or AH
  • France wanted Tunisia

    France felt that for a renewed inttrantional power whty would neeed to extend France's colonial empire. so they went after other places like Tunisia which Italy had also been after for a long time so this leads to a decade of bitterness betweent he two countries. But what the french people really still wanted was Alsace-Lorraine which really wouldnt give France anything except for restored pride, however the Gremans wouldnt do it. Britain looked upon this with great suspiciona nd didnt like it.
  • Triple Alliance renewed in feb of 87

    Between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy:: If each country is attacked by a certain other country then they will help. Germany against France, AH against Russia or France, Italy against France but if the countries go against any other countries then the people in this alliance. Main point of it is to keep Italy from fighting: Germany didn’t want conflict between Italy and AH. If any of these three nations go to war with two other countries, the two other countries in the alliance would help
  • Imperialism Conference at Berlin

    THought Bismarck saw the scramble for Africa to be dangerous tot he stability of Europoe, he held a conference to hammer out rules for claiming and exploiting Africa in hopes that hese reules would stave off disagreements and arguments over ownership. Bismarck dodnt bring Germanyinto any of this and this is one of the reasons he is removed rom office by Wilhelm II because Wilhelm wants to get colonies because he thinks that being bigger makes them stronger.
  • Mediterranean Agreements

    Agreement betweeen AH, Italy and Britain to preserve the status quo around the shores of the the Mediterranean.
  • Reinsurance Treaty

    Between Russia and Germany:: pretty much ends in 1890 and isnt re-signed because Bismarck is no longer in office.
    Germany never wants to have a two front war; enemies from both sides. He is always going to have an enemy in France so wants to have an alliance with Russia on the other side so they won’t get sandwiched by two wars. So this treaty said that if Germany and France got into it then Russia would stay neutral and stay out of it. This made Germ
  • Reinsurance treaty

    "a trois in a Europe of Five powers" because it made them the stronger side in the five poewrs, now it was 3 countries to one. but after this is over, this is no longer the case. which distances Germ from Russia and pushes Germ more towards AH. "Germany's security would be guaranteed if it mainained an alliance with two of them" When they didnt renew it, this left Russia in a state of isolationa nd so they went towards France.
  • Bismarck Removed from Office

    Bismarck is removed from office because Wilhelm II comes to power and doesnt necessarily like Bismarck's ideas for foreign policy, Wil wants to deal with colonies and things on the outside of Germany to make Germany seem bigger and stronger, but Bismarck only wanted to deal with the inside because he figured build up a strong core and you go from there. This causes a whole bunch of bad things because Bismarck is holding everything together very carefully and when he leaves it will all fall apart
  • France loses Alsace-Lorraine

    After the Franco-Prussian war, Germany takes it away as punishment and France is mad and always wants it back but Germany wont give it back so just builds up animosity between the two nations which leads to WWI. Because of this now France is losing predominance which they hate, so naturally they hate Germany but because they lose predominance they need allies in order to defend themselves from Germany, so now they are open to ally with any enemy of Germany
  • Splendid Isolation

    Around this time and mostly just in the late 19th century, England is in Splendid Isolation. Gladstone and Disraeli were both heads of England at these times but they were so isolated and had such seperated views from everything, although Disraeli and Bismarck have much of the same views and so they are about to work together and sucha nd this will be good and everyone will be great but then disraeli is boted out of office and Gladstone comes in and messes everything up with his christian policy
  • Franco-Russian Alliance

    Between France and Russia::Germany never wants to have a two front war; enemies from both sides. He is always going to have an enemy in France so wants to have an alliance with Russia on the other side so they won’t get sandwiched by two wars. So this treaty said that if Germany and France got into it then Russia would stay neutral and stay out of it. This was created because, France and Germany were rival European nations and Russia and AH were rival European nations.
  • German Miliitarism

    Germany begins to build up its military power starting with the navy: because they see that alliances are developing btwn ruusia and france and GB. They are trying to establish themselves as a world power and trying to make their own world policy so they need ot have a good strong and powerful image in the eyes of all surrounding nations. This abided with the deterrence theory.
  • Anglo-French Tensions

    over colonial land and such.
  • Assassination of Serbian king

    King Alexander is assassinated and aaccession fo the SErbian throne of the pro-Russian karageorgevich dynasty. Serves serious blow to AH aspirations inteh Balkans. in this Serbia aspired to exonomic, and perhaps eventrually to polictial leadership of the Balkan Slavs. AH likes 'south slavism' AH said serbia was the Piedmont fo the South Slavs.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Russia and Japan are at odds with boudaries and land in the far far East. Think about going to war but then the German kaiser really pushes them into it and tries to incourage them to go to war so that Russia will get their mind off of the Balkan Crisis. Also because they lost to the japanese, Russia was really devalued in they eyes of hte Europeans as a strong and reliable ally.
  • Entente Cordiale

    Britain and France::Settled colonial differences between British and France mostly in North Africa, (Morocco and Egypt). Less formal agreement: British typically known for less formal agreements. They don’t like to agree to binding military action (if someone attacks you, we’ll attack them back). [In 1839 the British had agreed to defend the neutrality of Belgium: that they get to stay as a neutral and undisturbed nation (so that Britain can have a neutral landing base on continental Europe)but
  • Entente Cordiale

    this basically is what causes Britain to go to war in WWI when Germany attacks Belgium and so yeah.
  • Period: to

    Pig War

    Instigation fo hungarian economic interests, the Empire imposed prohibitive tariffs on Erbian agricultural produe, especially livestock, this jus mad Serbia more russia and helped to maintain an atmosphere of hostility and mistrust between Serbia and AH.
  • Weltpolitik

    German World Policy developed by Wilhelm II after he removed Bismarck from office. He wanted gErmany to have her place in the sun as a big world power with many colonies and much land. but it was brash provocative and dangerous idea... Wilhelm visited FRENCH controlled Morocco and boldly proclimed that status fo Morocco should be seen at interntl conference and then should be given to Germany. but then at the conference French reclaimed he land.
  • British Militarism

    All of the countries are bing militaristic and building a lot of stuff so that they can keep up with each other and stuff. So they make the HMS Dreadnought: revolutionary in speed!! scared a bunch of countries and started even more militarism.
  • Triple Entente

    Britain, France, Russia: Not a military alliance. Most historians say it was in response to the renewal of the Triple alliance. Settling past colonial diffferences between 3 bodies: Pesia, Tibet, and Afghanistan. British refused to agree with any military action stuff
  • Agadir Crisis

    Wilhelm still mad about France reclaiming Morocco so send gunboat Panther to Moroccan port of Agadir to pressure france inot giving the country to Germany. but then they are criticized and Germany comes away freeling dangerously isolated and victimized.
  • SErbia sees opening in OE

    Serbia sees opportunity when Italy and Ottomans are fighting over Tripoli. Serbia wants to take adavatage of the Sultan's divided attention and resources so forms Balkan league with Bulgaria Montenegro and Greece and goes to war ahh this is the FIRST BALKAN WAR
  • 1st Balkan War

    The Balkan League, Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro, goes to war with Turkey because they wanted to free themselves from the influence of Turkey. The Turks lost a bunch of land. Then the Balkan League splits up again and becomes very tense and paranoid with each other. Profit was Albania and Macedonia with most of it going ot Bulgaria.
  • 2nd Balkan War

    War over Macedonia, Bulgaria tries to push Greece and Serbians out of Macedonia. But Bulgaria is the loser, afterwards, Serbia is more of a power player in this region
  • Russia moves to protect Serbia

    Russia has always felt a connection and a need to protect the Slavs of the Balkans because they are all of the same ethnicity, so after AH declares war, Russia feels neccessary that they mobilise their forces on the souther borders. If they didnt do this, then they would be stripped of any influence in the Balkans and would be devalued as a nation and ally in the eyes of France. (Somwhere around this time) tHis is kind of like nationalism, from the Serbians and Russians together.
  • White Domions

    Realization that Britain and France had a bunch of White Dominions around the world like Canada, Australia, and Algiers, that make them have a bigger presence in the war, the germans are like oh no, England and France will have a lot of miniature allies around the world that can send them stuff!
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

    Heir to the throne of A-H. Assassinated at Sarajevo by Sebian terrorist organisation known as the 'Black Hand' althought Serbia says they know nothing about it, it seems many high up people know about it but were unable to stop it. He was one of the strongest influences for peace.
  • AH ultimatum to Serbia

    AH sent this ultimatum because they thought Serbian pretensions needed to be checked so they made an ultimatum that was so ourtageous Erbia would surely turn it down. However, Serbia accepted the ultimaturm!
  • AH declares war on Serbia

    Austria-Hungary is the first country to declare war in WWI. Right after Serbia agrees to the ultimatum. AH believes that they can just beat Serbia really fast and then keep them under their control so that AH can have the Balkans and gain more land.
  • Germany declares war on Russia

    The mobilisation of Russia caused Germany to support its ally, Austria, On 31 July, they demanded suspension of alll Russian mobilisation. When this didnt happen they declared war on Russia.
  • Germany declares war on France

    Germany wants a formal declaration of neutrality from France. Germ doesnt want France in this fight. So they also want the country to give up two border forces just in case. However France does not give in because it would no longer be seen as a Great Power. So Germany declares war on them.
  • Britain enters War

    Germany wanted to keep Britain out of the war, however for some reason, their military strategy had them going through Belgium to get to France instead of going through Alsace-Lorraine, which was weird, but so they went through Belgium and England had a very strong military alliance with Belgium to keep it neutral, so when GErmany invaded, they did not like it and England declared war