European Diplomacy 1870-1913

By cziller
  • Britain guarantees Belgium's perpetual neutrality

    Britain guarantees Belgium's perpetual neutrality
  • Period: to

    German unification

  • Hapsburg Empire defeated in the Austro-Prussian War

    Hapsburg Empire defeated in the Austro-Prussian War
  • Habsburg Empire becomes the Austro-Hungarian Empire

    Habsburg Empire becomes the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Industrial Revolution that took root in England spreads to the rest of Europe and across the Atlantic

    Industrial Revolution that took root in England spreads to the rest of Europe and across the Atlantic
  • Period: to

    Germany under Otto von Bismarck

  • German unification complete

    German unification complete
  • France is isolated diplomatically

    France is isolated diplomatically
  • France loses Alsace and Lorraine to the Germans

    France loses Alsace and Lorraine to the Germans
  • League of Three Emperors

    League of Three Emperors
    Austria, Germany, Russia
    It was made to keep the peace in Europe; to isolate France; would offer aid to the other nations if attacked by outside powers; to prevent conflict between Austria and Russia in the Balkans
  • War in Sight Crisis

    War in Sight Crisis
    resulted from an attempt to bully France into abandoning her rearmament program
  • Russo-Turkish War begins

    Russo-Turkish War begins
    due to pan-Slavism from Russia and revolts against the sultan in the Ottoman Empire
  • Congress of Berlin

    Congress of Berlin
    Austrian administration gains Bosnia
  • Dual Alliance formed

    Dual Alliance formed
    Germany and Austria
    Russia was angry with Germany and Bismarck wanted to scare them into being friends again; after the Berlin Conference; Germany and Austria will aid each other if Russia attacks, but they will stay neutral if someone else attacks; both nations were trying to avoid diplomatic isolation
  • New tariffs in Germany

    New tariffs in Germany
  • League of Three Emperors Renewal

    League of Three Emperors Renewal
    Russia, Germany, Austria
    Under Alexander III; Russia and Austria both acknowledged that they would each have a certain sphere of influence in the Balkans (Russia in the East, Austria in the west)
  • Italy loses Tunis to France

    Italy loses Tunis to France
  • Triple Alliance formed

    Triple Alliance formed
    Italy, Austria, Germany
    Germany gets a true committed ally against France; Italy andFrance have a history of colonial and land-based conflict
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    Bismarck holds a conference in Berlin to discuss colonial occupation in Africa
  • Period: to

    Germany gains colonies in Africa

    Togo, the Cameroons, German East Africa, and South West Africa
  • Period: to

    Italy adds the coastal strip territories of Somaliland and Eritrea

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    Bulgarian Crisis

    Austria and Russia's relationship deteriorates
  • League of Three Emperors Ends

    League of Three Emperors Ends
  • Bismarck refuses to approve German loans to Russia

    Bismarck refuses to approve German loans to Russia
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    Reinsurance Treaty

    Russia and Germany
    Germany acknowledges Russia's influence in Bulgaria and agreesto stay neutral if the other id fighting, but if Germany attacks France, Russia helps France, and if Russia attacks Austria, Germany can help Austria; Germany wants alliance with Russia because they were afraid of fighting a two-front war (france and russia on either side)
  • Germany's economic penetration in the Balkans

    Germany's economic penetration in the Balkans
    Germany began her economic penetration of the Balkans by building the Baghdad railway to connect Berlin with the Persian Gulf.
  • Dual Alliance terms published

    Dual Alliance terms published
    to prevent war between Austria and Russia
  • Kaiser Wilhelm I dies and Wilhelm II takes over

    Kaiser Wilhelm I dies and Wilhelm II takes over
  • Wilhelm II does not renew the Reinsurance Treaty

    Wilhelm II does not renew the Reinsurance Treaty
  • Bismarck retires

    Bismarck retires
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II takes over

    Kaiser Wilhelm II takes over
  • Period: to

    France nurtures a closer relationship with Russia

  • Franco-Russian Entente formed

    Franco-Russian Entente formed
  • Franco-Russian Alliance is formed

    Franco-Russian Alliance is formed
    France and Russia
    If Germany attacks, they will both help each other; important economic alliance; the French will funnel millions into the Russian economy
  • Italy tries to conquer all of Abyssinia

    Italy tries to conquer all of Abyssinia
    but her troops suffer a humiliating defeat at the hands of the natives at Adowa
  • Fashoda Crisis

    Fashoda Crisis
    confrontation between a French and British force at Fashoda in the Sudan brings the countries to the brink of war
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    Boer War

  • Second Naval Law of 1900

    Second Naval Law of 1900
    Germany's desire for a navy to rival the Royal Navy was expressed
  • Scramble for Africa ends

    Scramble for Africa ends
    No more colonial land avaiable in Africa
  • Anglo-Japanese naval agreement

    Anglo-Japanese naval agreement
    japan would check Russian expansion in Asis
  • Assassination of King Alexander of Serbia

    Assassination of King Alexander of Serbia
  • Entente Cordiale created

    Entente Cordiale created
    Britain and France
    a settlement of colonial differences; not a formal agreement that one will fight for the other; just settling differences in Egypt and Morocco
  • Period: to

    Russo-Japanese War

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    First Moroccan Crisis

  • Period: to

    Germany tries to dictate the world by force

    Germany tries to dictate the world by force on three occasions. 1905: First Morrocan Crisis
    1909: Bosnian Crisis
    1911: Second Morrocan Crisis
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II causes trouble in Morocco

    Kaiser Wilhelm II causes trouble in Morocco
    The Kaiser landed in Morocco where he made a speech greeting the Sultan as an independent sovereign and promised him German protection if France tried to colonize his state.
  • Algeciras Conference

    Algeciras Conference
    Germany calls a conference with the intent to humiliate France and thus split the Entente. At the conference, Germany is supported by Austria and France is supported by Britain, Russia, and the United States. Here, it was made clear that Morocco was an independent state, but France was given special priveleges, such as control over their police and control of the customs and arms supply of Morocco. Diplomatic victory for the Entente Cordiale, and a defeat for the Dual Alliance.
  • Period: to

    France increases her influence in Morocco

  • Dreadnought introduced by the British

    Dreadnought introduced by the British
    The British ship, Dreadnought, was a revolutionary battleship that made every other at the time obsolete. (including Germany's who was trying to compete with them navally)
  • Triple Entente

    Triple Entente
    Russia, France, Britain
    Things in Russia aren't going well (just lost a war and people are unhappy); the British are still not making military committments to anyone #splendidisolation
  • King Peter ascends the throne in Serbia

    King Peter ascends the throne in Serbia
    King Peter was strongly anti-Austrian and he wanted to unite with his fellow nationals in Bosnia
  • pro-French Sultan on the Moroccan throne

    pro-French Sultan on the Moroccan throne
    The French installed a pro-French Sultan onthe throne in Morocco
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    Bosnian Crisis

  • Young Turk Revolution

    Young Turk Revolution
    A revolution breaks out in the Ottoman Empire. The Young Turks were liberal reformers and young officers. They demanded the Sultan to grant a Parliament and a modern constitution and to liberalize his despotic rule
  • Young Turks threaten to march to Constantinople

    Young Turks threaten to march to Constantinople
    The Young Turks rose in rebellion, and the Sultan gave way and agreed to restore a constitution.
  • Ferdinand of Bulgaria proclaims himself King of Bulgaria

    Ferdinand of Bulgaria proclaims himself King of Bulgaria
    Taking advantage of the chaos at Constantinople, Ferdinand of Bulgaria threw off his last shreds of allegiance to the Sultan and proclaimed himself King of Bulgaria.
  • Crete proclaims herself unified with Greece

    Crete proclaims herself unified with Greece
    Crete proclaims herself unified with Greece
  • Russian Foreign Minister makes a bargain

    Russian Foreign Minister makes a bargain
    Russian Foreign Minister, Alexander Izvolski amkes a political bargain with Count von Aehrenthal: Russia will not oppose Austrian annexation ofBosnia Herzegovina if Austria agrees to raise no objections against the opening of the Dardanelles to Russian warships
  • Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina
    While, Izvolski was trying to gain approval from the other powers about the opening of the straits, Austria suddenly annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, thus Austria had strengthened her position in the Balkans without giving the Russians any compensation. Russia was mad. Serbia was also mad. This is because the people here were mainly Slavs.
  • "Black Hand" is formed

    "Black Hand" is formed
    The Serbian nationalists formed a secret society, the Black Hand.
  • Italy attacks Tripoli

    Italy attacks Tripoli
  • Panther arrives in Morocco

    Panther arrives in Morocco
    Germany sends the gunboat, Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir to pressure Franc.e by calling into question her colonial claims
  • Period: to

    Second Moroccan Crisis

  • French forces occupy Fez

    French forces occupy Fez
    French forces occupy the capital of Morocco in order to suppress a rising against the pro-French Sultan
  • Britain and France make naval agreement

    Britain and France make naval agreement
    Britain and France make a naval agreement to that in the event of a war, the British fleet will guard the North Sea and the English Channel, while the French will be deployed into the Mediterranean.
  • Treaty of Lausanne

    Treaty of Lausanne
    Italy gets Tripoli from Turkey
  • Balkan League formed

    Balkan League formed
    made up of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro (the Balkan States)
  • Period: to

    Balkan Wars

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    First Balkan War

    Balkan League declares war on Turkey with the goal to partition the Turkish Empire
  • Balkan League declares war on Turkey

    Balkan League declares war on Turkey
    They exploit the chaotic political situation following the Turkish defeat in 1912
  • Period: to

    Balkan League wins battles

    The Balkan League won series of battles and Turkey could only retain the areas around Constantinople.
  • France passes Three Year Law

    France passes Three Year Law
    it increases madatory military service from two to three years
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    Settlement made by the powers. The most important provision was that a new state, Albania, would be created to prevent Serbia from getting a coastline on the Adriatic. Serbia was in turn given a large part of Macedonia.
  • Period: to

    Second Balkan War

    Bulgaria considered Macedonia to be hers. Quarrels with Serbia turned into war. Bulgaria fights against Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania, Greece and Turkey. War was ended quickly. Bulgaria lost. Turkey and Rumania got some land.
  • "For Serbia, we shall do everything"

    "For Serbia, we shall do everything"
    --Russian Tsar
  • Period: to

    World War I