Chapter 27

  • Three Emperor's League

    The League was created by Bismarck and linked the monarchs of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia in an alliance against radical movements. This is significant because it represented Bismarck’s attempt at isolating France and preventing hostile actions against Germany.
  • Congress of Berlin

    The Congress, which was called by Bismarck to establish rules for the imperialism of Africa, infuriated the Russians. This is significant because it resulted in Bismarck establishing a defensive alliance with Austria against Russia in 1879.
  • Alliance of the Three Emperors

    The treaty was signed between Germany, Austria and Russia. Bismarck, attempting to ease tensions between Austria-Hungary and Russia, created the secret alliance. This alliance lasted until 1887.
  • Triple Alliance

    The Triple Alliance was formed when Italy, motivated by tensions with France, joined Germany and Austria. This is significant because it shows the changing nature of European alliances.
  • Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty

    The treaty, created after Russia dropped out of the Alliance of the Three Emperors due to tensions in the Balkans, stated that Germany and Russia promised neutrality if the other was attacked. This helped to prevent hostile relations between Russia and Germany.
  • Bismarck is Fired

    Emperor William II dismissed Bismarck due to Bismarck’s friendly policy towards Russia. This dismissal is significant because William II refused to renew the German-Russian Reassurance Treaty. This resulted in Germany’s foreign affairs becoming gradually weakened.
  • France and Russia Become Military Allies

    William II decision to not renew Germany’s treaty with Russia resulted in France actively courting the country. The new was to remain in effect so long as Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy were allied. It succeeded in dividing Europe into two rival camps.
  • British Alliance with Japan

    Britain signed the treaty in part to improve its international standing. This is also significant because it entered Great Britain into the alliance system.
  • Morocco Conference

    The conference was called by Germany to settle the Moroccan question. The event is significant because it pushed France and Britain closer together and left Germany generally isolated. In fact, Austria was Germany’s only true ally after the event.
  • Daily Mail in Britain Declares Germany is Attempting to Destroy the British

    This is significant because it proves that Great Britain was effectively in the Franco-Russian Camp.
  • The Bolsheviks

    At the 1903 meeting of the Social Democratic Labor Party is 1903, Lenin demanded a small, disciplined and elitist party while his opposition, the Mensheviks, demanded a democratic party with mass membership. The event is significant because it split the party and Lenin’s Bolshevik faction would go on to gain power in Russia.
  • Anglo-Russian Agreement

    Russia, following the disastrous Russ-Japanese War, agreed to settle its dispute with Great Britain about territorial possession in Persia and Central Asia. This is significant because it brought Russia and Britain closer together and increased German paranoia.
  • Austria Annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina

    The event enraged Serbians, but they could not remedy the situation without Russian support. This would lead to tensions that would come to the forefront during the upcoming Balkan Wars.
  • The First Balkan War

    The war started when Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire. The dispute over territorial acquisitions would eventually lead to another war.
  • The Second Balkan War

    Serbia and Bulgaria went to war over territorial acquisitions from the First Balkan War. The Second Balkan War saw intervention by Austria and a Serbian defeat. This is significant because Serbia was forced to give up Albania, which greatly increased tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.
  • Assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

    Ferdinand was killed by a Serbian revolutionary during a state visit to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. The event is significant because it started World War I. On July 23, Austria-Hungary decided Serbia was solely to blame and gave the nation 48 hours to agree to demands that would effectively result in Austria annexing Serbia. Serbia refused and war was declared on July 28.
  • Russian Mobilization

    Tsar Nicholas II ordered a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary to defend Serbia. This proved to be impossible because Russian military officials had assumed that Russia would fight against both Austria-Hungary and Germany. Full mobilization was ordered and Germany was attacked.
  • Period: to

    World War I

    World War I started following the invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary. Fighting quickly spread throughout Europe and the world in general as nations such as Russia, Germany, France, Great Britian, Japan the Ottoman Empire and the United States were brought into the conflict The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Invasion of Belgium

    German forces, facing the same mobilization planning deficiencies as Russia, needed to invade France because it had planned for a two front war against both France and Russia. After Belgium refused German forces access, General Helmuth von Moltke decided to march through. This caused Great Britain to enter the war effort.
  • Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes

    During the battles, generals Ludendorff and Hindenburg effectively destroyed the Russian armies. Following these battles, Russia would never threaten German territory again. By 1915, Russians were forced into a deep retreat.
  • Battle of the Marne

    German armies quickly advanced through Belgium and were marching on Paris. The French government rushed troops to the front, often using taxicabs for this purpose. The battle is significant because it saved the French capital and ensured that World War I would be a long, two-front war.
  • Italy Joins the Allies

    Italy refused to aid the Austrians because they argued the Third Balkan War was a war of aggression. The Italians decided to join the Allies almost solely on the promise of additional territory.
  • The Ottoman Empire Joins the Central Powers

    The Ottomans carried World War I into the Middle East, which saw heavy fighting between Russian and Ottoman forces.
  • Leaders Start to Realize that World War I will be a Long Conflict

    By this point in time, politicians and generals in almost every country involved in World War I realized that the conflict would be a long one. They desperately needed both materials and soldiers to wage war. Due to this, total war tactics were implemented such as the creation of the War Raw Materials Board in Germany.
  • Trench Warfare

    By this point in time, a long line of trenches passed from the Northern Belgium forts to the Swiss Border. Combat consisted of artillery strikes against enemy fortifications followed by charges of soldiers being sent over the top. This is significant because it resulted in massive levels of causalities and ensured that World War I would be a long war.
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

    Early in the year, the Germans started to use unrestricted submarine warfare. This violated international law requiring a fair warning before sinking a ship. In May of 1915 alone, over ninety ships were sunk.
  • Battles of Dardanelles and Constantinople

    During the battles, British soldiers attempted to take key Ottoman cities, but were badly defeated. This shows the widening span of the war.
  • Armenian Genocide

    Many Armenians had welcomed Russian armies as liberators from Ottoman oppression, so the Ottomans ordered a deportation of the Armenians. This is significant because over a million Armenians were killed.
  • Sinking of the Luisitania

    The passenger ship, which was secretly carrying arms and munitions, was sunk by a German submarine. This resulted in the death of over 1,000 people, including 139 Americans. President Wilson protested and Germany agreed to stop submarine warfare to prevent the US from entering the war.
  • Progressive Bloc

    In Russia, parties in the Duma ranging from conservative to socialist demanded a completely new government that responded to the Duma, not the tsar. Tsar Nicholas II responded by adjourning the Duma and heading to the front to rally the Russian soldiers. This left Ratsputin and Alexandra as the de facto rulers of Russia, which would led to the collapse of the tsar’s government.
  • Karl Liebknecht is Arrested in Germany

    He was a socialist who demanded that the government be abolished and that the war be ended. This is significant because it illustrates that many individuals cracked under the strains of total war.
  • Battle of the Somme

    The battle is significant because it resulted in over a million causalities on both sides. This demonstrates the destructive nature of trench warfare. The battle also saw the first deployment of tanks.
  • 90% of British Imports Purchased and Allocated by the State

    This is significant because it demonstrates that Great Britian was also employing total war strategies during the rule of Lloyd George.
  • Auxiiary Service Law

    The law, which was passed in Germany, required that all males from the age of 17 to 60 work only in jobs critical to the war effort. This is significant because it shows the extent of total war in Germany.
  • Ratsputin is Murdered

    The people of Russia were disgusted by Ratsputin’s influence over the tsar’s government, so three Russian aristocrats killed him to end his threat to the crown’s prestige. This is significant because it left Alexandria so deep in shock that she was unable to handle the riots that would go on to engulf Russia.
  • Germany Uses Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Again

    This, in combination with support for the Allied cause and the increasing desperation of total war, resulted in the American entery into World War I in April of 1917. The American soldiers deployed helped to tip the balance of the wa in favor of the Allied cause.
  • March on Petrograd

    On March 8, food shortages resulted in women calling for bread in Petrograd. These demands spread throughout the cities and factories, resulting in rioting. Soldiers sent by the tsar to restore order joined the mob. This is significant because it resulted in the Duma declaring a provisional government on March 12 and the tsar abdicating on the 15th.
  • Lenin Arrives in Russia

    Lenin was shipped by Germany from neutral Switzerland to Russia in an attempt to destabilize the region.
  • Arab Revolt

    The revolt, led by Lawrence of Arabia, saw Arabians fight against their Turkish overlords. This is significant because it weakened the Ottoman Empire.
  • Women Form 43% of the Labor Force in Russia

    This is significant because it demonstrates that European nations heavily relied on the contributions of women during World War I.
  • French Units Refuse to Fight

    French units, demoralized by the disastrous French offense that occurred during the same month, refused to fight. Military justice for the leaders of this resistance and statements made by Henri Petain (who promised no further large scale offenses) restored order. This is significant because it demonstrates the effects of the strains of war on the French military.
  • The Reorganized Russian Government is Formed

    The government was headed by Alexander Trenesky, an agrarian socialist. He refused to confiscate land for the peasants and continued the war against Germany. This made the government unpopular and resulte in its competitor, the Petrograd Soviet, gaining power.
  • Bolsheviks Seize Power

    Trotsky, who was appointed chair of a special council to stop German plots by the Soviet, and Bolsheviks seized government buildings and declared that all power had passed to the Soviets. The Bolsheviks would go on to effectively control Russia.
  • George Clemenceau Becomes the Leader of France

    This is significant because he ruled like a dictator and jailed anyone who argued for a compromise peace with Germany. This established order over France.
  • Balfour Declaration

    The declaration was made by British foreign minister Arthur Balfour. It promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine in the hopes that German and Austrian Jews would support the Allied war effort. This is significant because many Palestinian Arabs believed that the Jewish homeland would be incompatible with majority rule and result in British administration of the region.
  • Constituent Assembly is Dissolved

    Lenin promised the people of Russia an elected assembly. He dissolved it after the Socialist Revolutionaries (peasant socialists) won a majority of seats. This started the Russian Civil War as people realized that they were getting a dictatorship from the capital.
  • Period: to

    Russian Civil War

    During the war, a great variety of groups, united only by their hatred of the Bolsheviks, waged war against the reds. By October of 1919, it appeared as if they might triumph. However, a combination of war communism, Bolshevik military leadership, state terrorism and a lack of support for the Whites resulted in a Bolshevik victory.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    The treaty was crafted by Lenin as a means to withdraw Russia from World War I. Many Bolshevik leaders opposed the treaty, but relented as German armies advanced through Russia. A third of Russia’s population was taken control of by Germany. This is significant because the treaty allowed Germany to focus on conquering France.
  • Spring Offensive

    German forces, which were greatly freed up following Russia withdraw from the war, advanced within 35 miles of Paris. However, they were stopped during the Battle of the Marne in July, where German forces encountered American forces. Following this, the Allied forces advances rapidly on the Western Front and Ludendorff, the German commanding officer, realized that Germany had lost the war.
  • Defeat of the Ottomans

    The British, using armies from Australia, New Zealand and India, effectively defeated the Ottomans. This would bring revolutionary change to Arabia as the British and French divided the area up.
  • End of World War I

    Following massive worker uprising throughout Germany, a republic was declared and Germany dropped out of the war on the 11th. This effectively ended combat.
  • Peace Conference

    At the peace conference, Woodrow Wilson represented America, Clemenceau represented France and George represented Britain. Wilson was interested in creating a League of Nations to prevent aggression. George personally wanted a moderate peace with Germany, but was forced to be harsh on Germany by his electors. Clemenceau had a genuine interest in punishing Germany. He demanded a border state between France and Germany, but agreed to drop this demand in return for a military alliance with the US.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    The treaty limited Germany’s military to 100,000 men and forced Germany to pay war reparations for all civilian damages caused by the war. Poland was reestablished as a nation and the predominately German city of the Danzig was placed under League protection. The treaty was very harsh on Germany, which led to tensions that would erupt into another war. The American Senate, led by Republican Cabot Lodge, refused to ratify the treaty because the article creating the League would theoretically
  • Treaty of Versailles (continued)

    violate Congress’s constitutional right to declare war. This resulted in American becoming isolated from European affairs.