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World War I

By j.wags
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    Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz

    He was the leader of the German Imperial Army from 1869 to 1916. He transformed to from a modest Navy to a powerful Navy capable of fighting the British Navy.
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    Three Emperors' League

    The alliance that connected Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. They were alligned by all being against radical movements.
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    Balkan Nationalism

    Bismarck resolved Balkan crisis with the Congress of Berlin in 1878. Austria-Hungary won the right to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbia and Romania won independence. The Ottoman Empire, however, retained important holdings. In 1903, Balkan nationalism flared up again, in Serbia this time. Serbia became openly hotile towards Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
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    Bismarck and Alliances

    Bismarck created the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria. That alliance evolved into the Triple Alliance adding Italy to the group.
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    Triple Alliance

    Triple Alliance was a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. This alliance would soon be called the "Central Powers".
  • Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty

    Both Russia and Germany promised neutrality if the other country was attacked. Bismarck headed the idea.
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    Emperor William II

    William II was crowned emperor in June 1888 and in 1890 he dismissed Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. For many years he was blamed for the start of World War I, but now the blame has been reassessed.
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    Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    He was the Archduke of Austria. He was asasinated in Sarajevo which caused a decleration of war against Serbia. He was born in Graz, Austria.
  • Bismarck's Resignation

    Bismarck's Resignation
    Emperor William II dismissed Bismarck because he had a friendly foreign policy toward Russia.
  • Franco-Russian Alliance

    The Franco-Russian Alliance was mainly a militarial alliance between France and Russia. The alliance was made to stay in tack as long as there was a Triple Alliance.
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    Theophile Delcasse

    Theophile Delcasse was the foreign minister of France during the start of the war. He arranged for a treaty, the Anglo-French Entente, between France and Britain which eased tension between the two countries.
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    South African War

    The South African War was fought between the British and small Dutch republics of South Africa. The war brought forward widespread anit-British feelings. Also, Britian's empire was getting too big.
  • Anglo-French Entente

    The Anglo-French Entente settled all colonial disputes between Britain and France. France accepted British rule in Egypt if Britain supported the French plans to dominate Morocco.
  • Algeciras Conference

    Algeciras Conference
    This conference was established to find a solution to the first Moroccoan Crisis over control of Morocco between France and Germany.
  • Anglo-Russian Entente

    Anglo-Russian Entente
    Signed in St Petersburg. This agreement set the boundries of Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
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    Balkan Wars

    There were two Balkan Wars. These wars occured as a result of incomplete nation-states in the Ottoman Empire that were forming.
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    Central Powers

    Central Powers originated from the Triple Alliance. Countries involved were Germany, Austria-Hungray, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria.
  • "Blank Check"

    Germany gave Austria support in the war. They offered unlimited money and supplies.
  • Austria-Hungary's unconditional ultimatum

    In response to the assasination of Franz Ferdinand. Decleration of war.
  • Rssian Mobilization

    In response to atack by Austrian forces on Belgrade. They declared war on Austria and mobilized their Army.
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    Hindenburg and Ludendorff

    The two main generals on the German side. They were responsible for badly damaging the Russians. Gained their reputations from the Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes. At first they were "Easterners," advocating beating the Russians before the west; then they flipped sides and advocated for Western attack first.
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    World War I

    At the time, it was known as the Great War. This war never should have happened, because there was essentially no reason for it. A political polyglot heightened tensions between the countries of Europe and when the Archduke was assassinated, the system broke down.
  • Battle of Tannenberg

    Maybe the most complete German victory in the war. The Germans encircled and destroyed the Russians, virtually ending their invasion of East Prussia before it had really started.
  • The Battle of Marne

    The French attacked a gap in the German line. For three days, they put everything they had into the battle. Finally, the Germans fell back, saving Paris and France.
  • Battle of Masurian Lakes

    The second great German victory over the Russians, the first being the Battle of Tannenberg. The Germans were lead by Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
  • Race to the Sea

    An attempt by both sides to "leapfrog" the other in a flanking move. It resulted in both armies essentially "racing" to the sea, and the eventual construction of trenches from the North Sea all the way to the Swiss Alps. The race continued through November 30, 1914.
  • Total War

    Free-market capitalism was abandoned, instead governments decided what was going to be produced and how things were going to be consumed. Rationing, price and wage controls, and workers' freedom were imposed by the government.
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    Trench Warfare

    After the Battle of the Marne, both sides dug in using hundreds of miles of trenches. Massive death tolls with insignificant gains lead to one soldier to say "I am staring at a sunlit picture of Hell."
  • Triple Entente

    Made up of Great Britain, France, and Russia, the Triple Entente tried to check the power of Germany, as well as trying to cut off their only real ally, Austria-Hungry.
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    Submarine Warfare

    Using the new submarine, the Germans effectively destroyed about 90 ships in the British war zone, violating the traditional niceties of fair warning under international law. After sinking the Lusitania, the Germans backed off in fear of total war against America. Then, they resumed their policy in early 1917, creating a feeling of superiority in the seas.
  • Sinking of the "Lusitania"

    Sinking of the "Lusitania"
    More than 1,000 lives, including 139 Americans, were lost when a German submarine sank this British passenger ship. It forced Germany to relax its submarine warfare for almost two years instead of almost certain war with America.
  • Battle of Verdun

    The Battle of Verdun was fought between the German and French armies. There was a total of 698,000 by the time the longest battle of the war ended on December 18, 1916.
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    Battle of Somme

    The British and French gained 125 square miles while 600,000 soldiers were either dead or wounded. The Germans lost 500,000 men.
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    David Lloyd George

    Daivd George Lloyd was the Prime Minister of the UK from 1916 to 1922. He was the heasd of a wartime coalition government as well. He was the last liberal Prime Minister of the UK.
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    Georges Clemenceau

    He served as the Prime Minister of France. Also he contributed in writing the Treaty of Versailles. He was nicknamed "The Tiger."
  • War Raw Materials Board

    Walter Rathenau was in charge of Germany's largest electric company and he set up the War Raw Materials Board. This board rationed and distributed raw materials
  • Balfour Declaration

    The Balfour Declaration was made by Arthur Balfour, the British foreign secretary, and it declared that Britain favored a "National Home for the Jewish People" in Palestine.
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    Second Battle of Marne

    This was the last time the Germans moved offensively on the western front. The attack failed when French troops overwhelmed the Germans. This was a major turning point in the war on the western front.
  • Armistice

    The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. This treaty was signed by the Germans and the Allied Powers in Compiegne, France, and meant the end of the war.
  • German Revolution of 1918

    The revolution brought forth a liberal republic. The German Revolution was reminisent of the Russian Revolution of March 1917.
  • Peace Conference of Paris 1919

    The peace conference was a meeting of the Allied victors to discuss terms for the Central Powers. The treaties reshaped the map of Europe and imposed financial penalties on Germany.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    This treaty ended the war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Germany had to accept responsibility for starting the war.
  • War Guilt Clause

    It forced Germany to say that they were solely responsible for the war. Also Germany had many reparations to pay.
  • "All Quiet on the Western Front"

    Considered to be one of the greatest war novels ever, this book was written by Erich Maria Remarque, and depicted the extreme physical and emotional stress during the war, as well as their difficult return to civilized life.
  • League of Nations

    This organization's goal was to maintain world peace.