20th century

20th Century History

By KJP1996
  • Period: to

    Rising Militarism Before WW1

    During this timespan, the average amount of money spent on military in each country went up exponetially, to the point where Germany was spending over ten-times on it's army in 1914 what it had been spending in 1870. This rising militarism from all countries made everyone feel threatened, causing them to spend more on their military and causing the same for others. This loop is a large part of what caused World War 1.
  • End of the Franco-Prussian War

    France is defeated in the war it declared against Prussia. They are made to sign a humiliating contract that gave the newly-unified Germany the areas of Alsace and Lorraine. Both a majority of ethnic German people, and a majority of Frances Iron and machinery producers. This left France humiliated, and hoping for revenge, meaning that tensions were high between France and Germany until a reversal of positions at the end of WW1.
  • Germany's Turning point

    This for Germany, was not only the end of the Franco-Prussian war. This was the time when the country of Germany was fully formed. The entire war had been a plan thought up by Bismarck, who had wanted to unite the many small German states into a whole, united Germany. And his plan succeeded.
  • The Bosnian (Balkan) Crisis

    Austria-Hungary nearly begins WW1 early when it announces the annexation of Bosnia and Herzogovina. Serbia isn't happy with this, and demands for either Austria-Hungary to back down, or compensation in the form of territory. When they are denied this, Serbia threatens war, with Russia as it's ally. But when Germany threatens them back (Germany being the ally of Austria-Hungary), Serbia and Russia back down, not being ready for a war with Germany, leaving major strains in the area until WW1.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    The major turning point of WW1, as this was the beginning. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, were shot and killed by a serbian man, Gavrilo Princip, in an organized attack by the Serbian group known as the Black Hand.
  • Declaration of War - The Beginning

    Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia for their part in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand exactly one month after his death.
  • Russia's Mobilisation

    Russia mobilises it's army against Austria-Hungary as a result of it's treaty with Serbia to come to their defense.
  • Period: to

    World War One

    The first and greatest (also the most deadly) of the world wars.
  • Germany's Alliance

    Germany, without prior notice, declares war on russia as a result of their treaty to defend Austria-Hungary, and Russia's declaration of war.
  • France and Germany's Conflict

    Treaty-bound to Russia, who had just declared war on Austria-Hungary as the result of it's treaty, France delcares war on Germany and, by extension, Austria-Hungary. This causes Germany to attack France by first invading neutral Belgium.
  • Britain's Reasons

    Britain, even though it proclaimed years earlier that it would remain isolated from continental politics, enters the war. Even though Britain was moraly obligated to help France, they only really entered the war because of a 75-year-old treaty with belgium, who was being invaded by germany. This caused Britain to declare war on them and, by extension, Austria-Hungary.
  • Minor Entries into the War

    Once Britain entered the war, many of it's colonies, both current and previous, helped in it's efforts by supplying food, money, and troops. These colonies included India, Australia, and South Africa.
  • Canada's Involvement in the War, Why and How.

    As soon as Britain declared war on a country, Canada was sworn to as well. This meant that, when the governer-general announced the start of a war between Britain and Germany, Canada had to join in, with only the freedom to determin to what degree. Canada responded by training an army of over 600,000 men and sending them across the Atlantic to fight. But this also raised tensions between English and French Canadians that would last many years.
  • Japan

    Japan entered into the war to honour an agreement with Britain, delclaring war on Germany alone. This soon caused Austria-Hungary to declare war on Japan.
  • Italy Joins the war

    A turning point for Italy, a former ally of both Germany and Austria-Hungary. They join the war against They're former allies. Citing a clause in their agreement stating that Italy would only help them in a defensive war (this being seen as offensive), Italy decided to be neutral in the war until now, when they join, but against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • The USA's Turning Point

    The USA wanted to remain neutral throughout the war, but when Germany's submarines started threatening US commerce (or so they said), They declared war on Germany, sending reenforcements to help the Allies.
  • Canada's Changes during the Great War

    While Canada had been "independant" from Great Britain for about half-a-century, it was still very much under they're control when the war started. However, throughout - and after - the war, Canada's true indepence was greatly accelerated. This had a lot to do with the politcal battles over whether or not to assist Great Britain, and gave Canada a lot of the freedom it has today.
  • Period: to

    The Inter-war Years

    These are the years between World Wars 1 & 2. Also part of the cause for WW2, this time was filled with resentment and, in some cases, hatred between countries. What with Germany having lost, and having to pay for almost the entire war, which they saw as unfair. As well as numerous other countries being destroyed, split up, and reformed into new ones. This left a lot of discontentment among the people, and, though it was peaceful, it was a very tense peace.
  • The signing of the Treaty of Versailles

    On this day, Germany signed the treaty that ended the war, formed the League of Nations, and destroyed Germany's economy. The Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for the entire war, requiring that they pay repairations to the countries they attacked, and give up any territory they captured to the countries that had lost it, and more. It also greatly limited their army, keeping them below 100,000 troops, with no war machines (tanks, submarines, etc...) except for six capital ships.
  • First Meeting of the League of Nations

    As stated in the treaty of Verailles, the League of nations had been formed. This first official meeting was held in Paris, out of convenience, though meetings later happened in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Washington Naval Disarmament Conference

    This was one of the first times countries involved in WW1 met to discuss disarmament. This conference was held specifically to decide to what degree naval disarmament would take place, and what the ratios of capital ship tonnage countries would be allowed.
  • The first Jewish concentration camp is created

    The first Jewish concentration camp is created
  • Hitler Refuses to Pay Repairations (not exact date)

    Hitler Refuses to Pay Repairations (not exact date)
    Upon his rise to power in 1933, and now German Chancellor, Adolf Hitler declared that he was putting an end to Germany's payment of WW1 repairations. Stopping their payment like this angered many countries, some who thought that Germany deserved to pay for the war, and some who were benefiting from this money. This is yet another cause for tension in an already tense time.

    (Image Source: http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/librarycatalogue/19338.detail)
  • Conscription begins in Germany

    Conscription begins in Germany
    In direct defiance of the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler reinstates conscription to rebuild Germany's limited army. This breaking of the treaty, while seen as just by Hitler and Germany in general, was one of the first steps taken to starting World War 2.

    (Image source: http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/triumph/tr-rhine.htm)
    (Info Source: http://histclo.com/essay/war/ww2/cou/ger/rearm/nazi/na-cons.html)
  • Period: to

    The Second Sino-Japanese War

    This war was started because Japan, having very little land to work with, decided to take advantage of China's instability of the time to try and expand. In the long run, it also caused their involvement in WW2, because it caused the oil embargo against Japan, causing them to attack the US, causing the US to join the war as well.

    (Info source: "http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-ww2/sino-japanese-war" & "http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-ww2/pearl-harbor")
  • Germany (Hitler) and Russia (Stalin) sign a non-aggression pact

    Germany (Hitler) and Russia (Stalin) sign a non-aggression pact
    This was what began World War 2, as it is what ensured that Hitler would have peace on his eastern border while he worked on the war in the west.
    (Image source: http://www.untilourlastbreath.com/paper.html#)
  • Period: to

    World War 2

    arguably the worst world war, if not for it's death toll, for it's brutality. It has been agreed that World War 2 was caused by Nazi Germany under the power of Adolf Hitler, and that it was one of the largest genocides in all of history.
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany (again)

    Britain and France declare war on Germany (again)
    After an ultimatum sent to Germany had expired, the two countries once again go to war with a militant Germany.

    (Image source: http://www.abc.net.au/blackfriday/timeline/html_tl_1939_39.htm)
  • Poland falls to Germany

    Poland falls to Germany
    This was the day that Poland officially fell to Germany when the Polish capital, Warsaw, was captured.

    With Germany so close now, Britain is conducting regular air raid drills to prepare.
    (Image source: http://olive-drab.com/od_history_ww2_ops_battles_1940blitzkrieg.php) Image courtesy of http://tinyurl.com/llrp6o6
  • Germany begins the invasion of France

    Germany begins the invasion of France
    Germany has begun invading France, it's biggest invasion of the war so far. While the French have the backing of Britain's troops to help with the defence, Germany is easily sweeping through them and taking everything in their path.

    (Image source: http://tinyurl.com/mgucs5h)
  • The German army enters Paris

    The German army enters Paris
    On this day, France was completely lost to Germany. The Ally's troops were in constant retreat, and people were terrified of the quickly advancing German army. It was also at this point that Hitler turned his attention to Britain.

    (Image source: http://tinyurl.com/lfpabd3)
  • The Beginning of the London Blitz

    The Beginning of the London Blitz
    During this, possibly the worst point in London's history, London was being bombed almost constantly by German bombers. They destroyed about 2 million homes, and killed around 40,000 people.

    (Image scource: http://thebritish.sky.com/TweetingHistory/WorstNightoftheBlitz.aspx)
  • Britain is succesfully defended

    Britain is succesfully defended
    This was the last day of the London Blitz, and marks the day that Hitler started looking elsewhere for his expansion. Even though he hadn't taken Britain, he had beaten them enough that he could move his resources to the eastern front and launch an attack on Russia.

    (Image source: http://blog.robballen.com/Post/4706/this-is-where-im-at)
  • Operation Barbarossa Begins

    Operation Barbarossa Begins
    After having moved around 3 million unknowing soldiers to the eastern borders, Hitler orders the beginning of Operation Barbarossa, an attack on their ally Russia. As well as the 3 million troops, this attack also involves 3000 tanks, and was able to take up to 40 miles of Russian territory per day before Russia could react.

    (Image Source: http://tinyurl.com/mxnfd7z)
  • Germany's mission is almost complete

    Germany's mission is almost complete
    At this point Germany has both held or expanded it's western borders and gained a huge amount of territory from Russia in the east. German troops are swiftly approaching Moscow, and about 600,000 russian troops are dead in their wake. However, the Russian winter has basically stopped the troops, and they are finding it very difficult to continue.

    (Image source: http://tinyurl.com/qjvzls3)
  • The Bombing of Pearl harbor

    The Bombing of Pearl harbor
    One of the most well-known events of WW2 in the US, the Japanese bombing of Pearl harbor was the result of an oil embargo on Japan by countries including the US. The goal of this attack was to try to make them surrender with several small, decisive victories, and regain the oil supplies Japan needed.

    (Image source: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/ph-wvt.htm)
  • The US and Britain declare war on Japan

    The US and Britain declare war on Japan
    Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the only course of action for the US is to declare war on Japan, with Britain doing the same for their ally. This was when the US entered WW2, especially since it caused Germany to declare war on them three days later.
    (Info Source: http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/ww2-history/america-goes-to-war.html
    (Image Source: http://smokietx.blogspot.ca/2014/04/us-enters-world-war-i.html)
  • The mass killings in Auschwitz begin

    The mass killings in Auschwitz begin
    Starting with the deaths of over 500 mental patients, Auschwitz begins it's legacy which will only end after near one million deaths.

    (Image Source: http://en.auschwitz.org/h/)
    (Info Source: http://tinyurl.com/oa2qv3a)
  • The Battle of Stalingrad won

    The Battle of Stalingrad won
    This battle was among the first large defeats for the German army. It was at this point that the war started to turn around, and when the allies started to gain some hope of winning.

    (Image Source: http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=9184)
    (Info Source: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/ww2/Stalingrad.html)
  • German and Italian forces surrender in North Africa

    German and Italian forces surrender in North Africa
    Using a combination of both army and navy, the American and British forces overpowered the German and Italian troops, and used the navy to prevent their escape. This resulted in a tremendous loss for them of around 275,000 troops, as well as North Africa.

    (Image & Info Source: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiiafrsicitaly_2.htm)
  • Mussolini Deposed

    Mussolini Deposed
    With all of the recent losses that Germany and Italy had been suffering, the people of Italy were starting to lose faith in the alliance with Germany, and decided something needed to be done about it. So Mussolini was deposed and arrested, with the king reinstated as the head of power. Although northern Italy remained under the control of Germany.

    (Image and Info Source: http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/Mussolini.htm)
  • Italy surrenders to the Allies

    Italy surrenders to the Allies
    Marking one of the allies' greatest victories to date, Italy officailly announces that they have surrendered, and ask the allies to help drive the Germans from their borders.

    (Image Source: http://www.veteranstoday.com/2006/09/08/world-war-ii-italy-surrenders-to-allies-and-gen-eisenhower/)
    (Info Source: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/italian-surrender-is-announced)
  • D-Day

    Starting around 6 am that day, around 156,000 allied troops stormed the beachs at Normandy. The surprise and strategy that the allies had allowed them to take the beaches quickly and, for the most part, with minimal losses. This day was considered the beginning of the end of World War 2.

    (Image Source: http://tinyurl.com/pot5uh8)
    (Info Source: http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/d-day)
  • Russian troops take Auschwitz

    Russian troops take Auschwitz
    After this victory, around 7,000 prisoners are freed, and Auschwitz is shut down permanently. Unfortunately, The Nazi forces had already evacuated around 60,000 people to a different camp, and most of those are killed there.

    (Image Source: http://www.scrapbookpages.com/AuschwitzScrapbook/History/Articles/Liberation.html)
    (Info Source: http://tinyurl.com/nn546mn)
  • Mussolini is captured and executed by Italian Partisans

    Mussolini is captured and executed by Italian Partisans
    After many years of war caused by Mussolini's leadership and alliance with Germany, the Italian people rose up, killing him, his wife, and a dozen other fascists from the former government.

    (Image Source: https://todayinhistoryblog.wordpress.com/tag/1945/)
    (Info Source: http://tinyurl.com/nmdut6)
  • Hitler commits suicide

    Hitler commits suicide
    Just before 3:30 pm, Adolf Hitler and his wife Eva Braun, knowing that the war was lost and that they would soon be captured, commited suicide. Both Hitler and Eva took cyanide pills, but Hitler also shot himself in the head. This signaled the end of world war 2 for Germany.

    (Image Source: http://tinyurl.com/n7xs9cr)
    (Info Source: http://history1900s.about.com/od/1940s/a/Hitler-Suicide.htm)
  • Germany surrenders unconditionally

    Germany surrenders unconditionally
    The German high command signs the document saying that they and all of their forces unconditionally surrender, and within a day ensure that all German forces have ceased fire. Unfortunately, this still leaves Japan in the war.

    (Image Source: http://crooksandliars.com/gordonskene/may-7-1945-jumping-gun)
    (Info Source: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=78)
  • The first atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan

    The first atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan
    While this was only the second atomic bomb ever used after the first test nearly a month earlier, the effect of the bomb was no less devestating than any other. Around 70,000 people were killed immediatly, and an additional 70,000 would die from the after effects. This also destroyed 2/3 of the standing structures, practically leveling the city.

    (Image Source: http://worldw2.tripod.com/id17.html)
    (Info Source: http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/hiroshima.htm)
  • The second atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki

    The second atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki
    This bomb actually had a multitude of targets, with Nagasaki being among the least desirable of them, only being chosen because of bad weather otherwise. The reason it was so unfavorable was the terrain, which meant the bomb was less effective than in Hiroshima. It was still a tragedy to the people of Japan though, and resulted in tens of thousands of deaths.

    (Image Source: http://www.history.com/photos/hiroshima-and-nagasaki)
    (Info Source: http://tinyurl.com/3d7936)
  • Japan Surrenders - The End of WW2

    Japan Surrenders - The End of WW2
    After having two of the most powerful weapons in the world used on their cities, as well as having Russia declare war on them, Japan concedes defeat and calls an unconditional surrender. Even though this leaves a lot still to be done, this is seen as the end of World War 2.
    (Image Source: http://www.monumentsmen.com/blog/tag/1945/)
    (Info Source: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/japans-surrender-made-public)