War of the World Part I: WWI and the Spanish Civil War

  • Austro-Hungarian Comprimise of 1867

    The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise re-established the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from and no longer subject to the Austrian Empire. The realm comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, large parts of Serbia and Romania and smaller parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland and Ukraine.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870[7] (19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia. It also marked the downfall of N...
  • Formation of the Triple Alliance

    The Triple Alliance was the military alliance between Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy, (as opposing the Triple Entente which consisted of an alliance between Britain, France and Russia), that lasted from 1882 until the start of World War I in 1914. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was "the first great war of the 20th century."[3] It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea. The resulting campaigns, in which the Japanese military attained victory over the Russian forces arraye...
  • First Moroccan Crisis

    The First Moroccan Crisis, also called the Tangier Crisis was brought about by the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II to Tangier in Morocco on March 31, 1905 and his subsequent speech in which he favored Moroccan independence. This was a challenge to France's mandate of the country, and was designed to split the Entente Cordiale between Britain and France (signed in 1904).
  • Formation of the Triple Entente

    The Triple Entente was the name given to the alliance between France (lead by Georges Clemenceau), Britain (lead by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman), and Russia (lead by Nicholas II) after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on August 31, 1907. The alliance of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Portugal, Japan, the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Spain, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
  • Second Moroccan Crisis

    The Second Moroccan Crisis, also called the Agadir Crisis, was sparked by the German demand for large areas of French Equatorial Africa to compensate for Germany's loss during the First Moroccan Crisis. The deployment of the German warship Panther heightened the tension when it was sent to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911.
  • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

    On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip.The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. The assassins' motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia...
  • Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia

    The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Foreign Minister, Count Leopold Berchtold, sends an ultimatum to the Royal Government of Serbia. In the public life of Europe, that ultimatum was said to be "the most horrifying document that one free country ever sent to another free country". Some articles in the ultimatum seriously impacted Serbian sovereignity and independence.
  • Serbian government sends a reply to the ultimatum

    Even though Austria-Hungary didn't have the right to demand such actions from the Serbian government, Serbian response to ultimatum was positive for all articles, except one. Serbia didn't agree to allow Austrian investigators to enter Serbia and investigate the "crime", since that was a direct impact on Serbian sovereignity and borders. That enabled Austria-Hungary to state that Serbian response didn't satisfy their expectations.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war to Serbia

    At 11:10 A.M. Count Leopold Berchtold sent the declaration of war via telegram from Vienna to Nikola Pašić, Serbian Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs. This declaration of war was received at Niš at 12:30 P.M.
  • As an ally of Serbia, Russia announces full mobilization of her armed forces

    Russia entered the war after Austria declared war against Serbia, because Russia had made itself the guardian of all Slavic and/or Eastern Orthodox peoples, particuraly the South-Slavs in the Balkans who had for centuries been under Muslim-Ottoman domination.
  • Germany mobilizes her armed forces and declares war on Russia.

  • Germany declares war on France.

  • British Naval Blockade

    Occured when the British put a blockade on German ports and stopped neutral ships on the seas to examine cargoes. The Germans claimed that over 763,000 civilians died from starvation, causing much uprise in Germany. The blockade continued even after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, in order to force Germany to sign the controversial Treaty of Versailles in June 1919.
  • Germany declares war on Belgium

    Germany declares war on neutral Belgium and invades in a right flanking move designed to defeat France quickly. As a result of this invasion, Britain declares war on Germany.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.

  • First offensive in WWI

    The first Austrian attack came over the river Drina (the border between Serbia and Bosnia). Serbian HQ expected an attack from the north, over the rivers Sava and Danube. Serbian Field Marshal (Voivode) Stepa Stepanović swiftly maneuvered his 2nd Army so that it would cut off the Austrian advance on the mountain of Cer.
  • Battle of the Frontiers

    This was the "collision" of military strategies: the French "Plan XVII" which was meant to retrieve territories lost in the Franco-Prussian War (1870), and the German "Schlieffen Plan" that had the object of quickly winning the campaign in France (the same strategy that Germany will later pull off in WWII, under the name "Blitzkrieg").
  • Battle of Cer

    The Battle of Cer was fought for three days, from August 16th to August 19th. Serbian 2nd Army fought the Austrian 5th Army. The battle ended in Serbian victory, which was also the first Allied victory in World War I. As a result, Austrian forces had to pull back with severe casualties. The defeat crushed their plans for swift victory. Since they had to supply the Serbian front with more and more fresh troops, that kept their focus off the Russia and the rest of Entente.
  • Battle of Kolubara

    This was the second great offensive on Serbia. Serbian army began retreating, step by step. It was in at that time that Gen. Živojin Mišić was made commander of the battered 1st Army. Instead retreating trench-after-trench, he pulled off a deep withdrawal to give the troops some much-needed rest and shorten the front line. The price for using that strategy was having to abandon the capital city of Belgrade. This strategy eventually helped win a great victory - the last one that Serbia will win.
  • War becomes "Total War"

    War becomes "Total War" with German Zeppelin air raid on England
  • RMS Lusitania torpedoed by a German U-boat

    RMS Lusitania British ocean liner, RMS Lusitania, was identified and torpedoed by a German U-20 U-boat. She went down 11 miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland. The sinking took away 128 American lives. It also contributed to negative public view of Germany, and American entry into World War I. After the sinking, President Wilson said that "America was too proud to fight" and managed to avoid conflict. Recent discoveries prove that Lusitania was transporting war supplies and ammo for the Ent
  • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare

    The UC 42 was a coastal minelayer commissioned by the German navy in 1915. It made six patrols from the first of January 1917 up until September 10th that year at which point it is believed that it was sank by one of its own mines. The explosion occurred just outside the entry to Cork harbour killing all 27 crew members on board.
  • First use of gas

    British use gas in battle near Loos, but shifting winds cause 60,000 British casualties.
  • Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Bulgaria finally crush Serbia

    This last offensive was different than the previous ones: This time, Serbia had to defend from two opposite sides. This ended up in a defeat. Serbian king, Serbian government, the remaining army and numerous civilians retreated and left Serbia, rather than surrendering their country to the enemy. Serbia was occupied by Austrians together with the people that didn't leave.
  • Period: to

    Battle of Verdun

    The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties.
  • Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare

  • Period: to

    Battle of the Somme

    The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies. British introduce the tank, an effective weapon but far to few to make much of a difference.
  • Tanks effectively used for the first time in combat history

    The British "Mark I" tank had entered service and was used in combat. Prime Minister Winston Churchill personally named it a "tank", partially to cover up the vehicle's true purpose while it was still in development. It was revolutionary - a tracked vehicle able to resist gunfire, provide cover, transport supplies, cross trenches and break through front lines.
  • Grigori Rasputin is assassinated

    Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin, an Orthodox Christian monk, a mystic, a self-proclaimed psychic, and the personal physician to the Prince Alexei (who had haemophilia), the son of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II of the Romanov dynasty, was assassinated in Saint Petersburg. He was called the "Mad Monk" and was extremely influent on the Russian Imperial court.
  • The Zimmermann Note is forwarded to Mexico

    Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, sent the encoded Zimmerman telegram to Mexico. The note was intercepted and deciphered by the British. Germany offered Mexico some American states, among them Texas and Arizona, in return for their allegiance, and their "backstab" to U.S. Mexico refused the offer because it was not practical and possible, and partially because they didn't think that it was too smart to show hostility to U.S.
  • The Zimmermann Note is published in the U.S.

    The Zimmermann Note is openly published in the U.S. The contents of the telegram caused an enormous public outrage, which partially influenced the declaration of war by the U.S. to the German Empire and its allies.
  • US enters the war

    The first wave of the American Expeditionary Force lands in France.
  • Passchendaele

    Third Battle of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough in the Western front at the cost of 700,000 casualties for both sides.
  • Russia leaves the war

    The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with Germany.
  • Influenza Epidemic

    A separate but related event was the great 1918 flu pandemic. A virulent new strain of the flu first observed in the United States but misleadingly known as the "Spanish flu", was accidentally carried to Europe by infected American forces personnel. One in every four Americans had contracted the influenza virus. The disease spread rapidly through the continental U.S., Canada and Europe, eventually reaching around the globe, partially because many were weakened and exhausted by the famines of ...
  • Russian Revolution

    Former Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, children, and members of his entourage are murdered by the Bolsheviks.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates.

  • Armistice signed

    At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Peace Treaty signed by German delegates and Allies in Versailles.
  • Formation of the League of Nations

    The League of Nations (abbreviated as LON in English, and SDN in its other official languages), was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.