Untangling the web

Untangling the Web - Task 1

  • Time-Sharing

    For the first time, developers were able to use one computer at the same time and to connect to it simultaneously.
  • Batch Processing

    At this time, computers were only able to carry out one task at a time. This was very inconvenient, not only because they were unable to do multitasking, but also because they had to be stored in cooled rooms as they got bigger. However, in this year, a remote connection was installed, so that all developers could work directly with their computers through a direct connection.
  • Period: to

    Time Frame

  • Satellite

    During the Cold War, the first satellite was sent into orbit by the Soviet Union.

    In response to this and to secure the American leadership in technology, the US founded the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. The DARPA planned on using networks to interconnect commuities to quicken the exchange of education and knowledge. This led to the development of the ARPANET. Additionally, there were three other networks similar to the ARPANET. A military network called RAND was founded in America, a commercial one called NPL in England, and one called CYCLADES, in France.
  • Network Architecture

    This year, a decentralized network architecture was developed in protection of the threat of an atomic war during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Computers were still communicating through radio waves. With networks, long distances could be covered, "with a minimum of interference". Because the French network CYCLADES was formed by connecting networks to other networks, it was soon called "Internet".
  • Intergalactic Network

    J. Licklider wanted to create a network that would globally connect people and enable everybody to access information independently from their location. He became the leader of DARPA.

    In most universities, small computers were connected to the Mainframe that had IMPs, Interface Message Processors. The IMP served as an interface for the mainframe. Linked IMPs together formed an IMP Subnet. Later, the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) was invented to guide the communication between two computers in such a subnet. ARPANET also made use of Packet-Switching, which implied the idea of only sending parts of a file to the recipient who would put it back together.
  • The term is born

    V. Cerf and B. Kahn introduced the term by using it in their TCP (Transmission Protocol Paper).
  • Ethernet

    Ethernets were the ancestors of the modern Local Area Network which used special coaxial cabling. The first Ethernet was produced by R. Metcalfe. It quickly transported data, but not yet worked over vast distances.
  • Spam

    G. Thuerk sent the first spam mail to hundreds of ARPANET users for the purpose of advertisement.
  • The Core of the Internet

    That year, every machine that was connected to ARPANET was obligated to use both IPs (Internet Protocols) and TCPs (Transmission Control Protocols).
  • Dot Com?

    J. Postel described his idea for .com, .org, .gov, .edu and .mil in the Internet Engineering Task Force.
  • Dial-Up Internet

    "The World", an ISP, published the first commercial dial-up Internet. There have been more of the kind previously, except they were not public and so not accessible by the whole world. It was followed by "Panix", another ISP, in the same year.
  • Internet

    The Internet emerged. ARPANET Hardware was largely removed.
  • World Wide Web

    The CREN (Corporation for Education and Research Network) released the World Wide Web and upgraded the Internet.
  • The First Internet Browser

    The very first Internet browser was developed by M. Andreessen and the University of Illinois. It was called "Mosaic for X" and was a graphical interface.
  • Online Ordering

    From 1994 on, many organizations and corporations offered online ordering because it was more convenient for customers and maximized the profit. Later, in 1995, the greatest virtual shopping mall was created, called eBay (run and maintained by customers themselves).
  • Internet 2

    internet 2 is a network of research and education institutions.
  • WIFI

    Wifi, wireless Internet technology, is standardized.
  • Wikipedia

    In 2001, Wikipedia was launched, one of the greatest online educational databases. It, too, is run and maintained by customers, even today.
  • iTunes Store

    Apple launches the iTunes Store.
  • Gmail

    In April 2004, Google launched its own e-mail program called Gmail, which offered more storage space than both hotmail and Yahoo. This made it very attractive for users.
  • YouTube

    The greatest video portal, YouTube, was founded in 2005. The following year it was purchased by Google though.
  • Twitter

    Twitter is launched and presented by D. Sagolla. In the same year, the social network Facebook is made available to everyone.
  • Mobile Data Traffic

    Mobile Data Traffic
    In 2009, mobile data traffic exceeded voice traffic every month. Globally, mobile data exceeded an extabyte for the first time. Today, mobile data trafficking has exceeded all limits and telecommuting dominates all communication nowadays.