History of the Internet

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    History of the Internet

  • ARPA Going Online

    ARPA Going Online
    ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) goes online in December, connecting four major U.S. universities. Designed for research, education, and government organizations, it provides a communications network linking the country in the event that a military attack destroys conventional communications systems.
  • Introduction to Electronic Mail

    Introduction to Electronic Mail
    Electronic mail is introduced by Ray Tomlinson, a Cambridge, Mass., computer scientist. He uses the @ to distinguish between the sender's name and network name in the email address.
  • Queen Elizabeth using E-Mail

    Queen Elizabeth using E-Mail
    Presidential candidate Jimmy Carter and running mate Walter Mondale use email to plan campaign events.
    Queen Elizabeth sends her first email. She's the first state leader to do so.
  • "Internet"

    "Internet"
    The word “Internet” is used for the first time.
  • Start of TCP/IP

    Start of TCP/IP
    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is designed and in 1983 it becomes the standard for communicating between computers over the Internet. One of these protocols, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), allows users to log onto a remote computer, list the files on that computer, and download files from that computer.
  • DNS is established

    DNS is established
    Domain Name System (DNS) is established, with network addresses identified by extensions such as .com, .org, and .edu.
    Writer William Gibson coins the term “cyberspace.”
  • Quantum Computer Services

    Quantum Computer Services
    Quantum Computer Services, which later changes its name to America Online, debuts. It offers email, electronic bulletin boards, news, and other information.
  • Internet Worm Virus

    Internet Worm Virus
    A virus called the Internet Worm temporarily shuts down about 10% of the world's Internet servers.
  • Dial-Up Created

    Dial-Up Created
    The World (world.std.com) debuts as the first provider of dial-up Internet access for consumers.
    Tim Berners-Lee of CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) develops a new technique for distributing information on the Internet. He calls it the World Wide Web. The Web is based on hypertext, which permits the user to connect from one document to another at different sites on the Internet via hyperlinks (specially programmed words, phrases, buttons, or graphics). Unlike other Internet protoc
  • Indexing the Internet

    Indexing the Internet
    The first effort to index the Internet is created by Peter Deutsch at McGill University in Montreal, who devises Archie, an archive of FTP sites.
  • Point-and-click Navigation

    Point-and-click Navigation
    Gopher, which provides point-and-click navigation, is created at the University of Minnesota and named after the school mascot. Gopher becomes the most popular interface for several years.
    Another indexing system, WAIS (Wide Area Information Server), is developed by Brewster Kahle of Thinking Machines Corp.
  • Mosaic Created

    Mosaic Created
    Mosaic is developed by Marc Andreeson at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). It becomes the dominant navigating system for the World Wide Web, which at this time accounts for merely 1% of all Internet traffic.
  • White House Website Launched

    White House Website Launched
    The White House launches its website, www.whitehouse.gov.
    Initial commerce sites are established and mass marketing campaigns are launched via email, introducing the term “spamming” to the Internet vocabulary.
    Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark start Netscape Communications. They introduce the Navigator browser.
  • Dial-Up Internet Available

    Dial-Up Internet Available
    CompuServe, America Online, and Prodigy start providing dial-up Internet access.
    Sun Microsystems releases the Internet programming language called Java.
    The Vatican launches its own website, www.vatican.va.
  • 45 Million People

    45 Million People
    Approximately 45 million people are using the Internet, with roughly 30 million of those in North America (United States and Canada), 9 million in Europe, and 6 million in Asia/Pacific (Australia, Japan, etc.). 43.2 million (44%) U.S. households own a personal computer, and 14 million of them are online.
  • Internet Traffic Records

    Internet Traffic Records
    On July 8, 1997, Internet traffic records are broken as the NASA website broadcasts images taken by Pathfinder on Mars. The broadcast generates 46 million hits in one day.
    The term “weblog” is coined. It’s later shortened to “blog.”
  • Google Opens Office

    Google Opens Office
    Google opens first office, in California.
  • Napster created

    Napster created
    College student Shawn Fanning invents Napster, a computer application that allows users to swap music over the Internet.
    The number of Internet users worldwide reaches 150 million by the beginning of 1999. More than 50% are from the United States.
    “E-commerce” becomes the new buzzword as Internet shopping rapidly spreads.
    MySpace.com is launched.
  • Virus Research

    Virus Research
    To the chagrin of the Internet population, deviant computer programmers begin designing and circulating viruses with greater frequency. “Love Bug” and “Stages” are two examples of self-replicating viruses that send themselves to people listed in a computer user's email address book. The heavy volume of email messages being sent and received forces many infected companies to temporarily shut down their clogged networks.
    The Internet bubble bursts, as the fountain of investment capital dries up an
  • Napster Progressing

    Napster Progressing
    Napster is dealt a potentially fatal blow when the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco rules that the company is violating copyright laws and orders it to stop distributing copyrighted music. The file-swapping company says it is developing a subscription-based service.
    About 9.8 billion electronic messages are sent daily.
    Wikipedia is created.
  • 544.2 Million Internet Users World Wide

    544.2 Million Internet Users World Wide
    As of January, 58.5% of the U.S. population (164.14 million people) uses the Internet. Worldwide there are 544.2 million users.
    The death knell tolls for Napster after a bankruptcy judge ruled in September that German media giant Bertelsmann cannot buy the assets of troubled Napster Inc. The ruling prompts Konrad Hilbers, Napster CEO, to resign and lay off his staff.
  • Counting of Illegal Activity

    Counting of Illegal Activity
    It's estimated that Internet users illegally download about 2.6 billion music files each month.
    Spam, unsolicited email, becomes a server-clogging menace. It accounts for about half of all emails. In December, President Bush signs the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (CAN-SPAM Act), which is intended to help individuals and businesses control the amount of unsolicited email they receive.
    Apple Computer introduces Apple iTunes Music Store, which allow
  • Internet Worm Catastophe

    Internet Worm Catastophe
    Internet Worm, called MyDoom or Novarg, spreads through Internet servers. About 1 in 12 email messages are infected.
    Online spending reaches a record high—$117 billion in 2004, a 26% increase over 2003.
  • Youtube is Created

    Youtube is Created
    Youtube.com is launched.
  • Internet Popularity

    Internet Popularity
    There are more than 92 million websites online.
  • Music & Gaming Evolution

    Music & Gaming Evolution
    Legal online music downloads triple to 6.7 million downloads per week.
    Colorado Rockies' computer system crashes when it receives 8.5 million hits within the first 90 minutes of World Series ticket sales.
    The online game, World of Warcraft, hits a milestone when it surpasses 9 million subscribers worldwide in July.
  • Google's Dominance

    Google's Dominance
    In a move to challenge Google's dominance of search and advertising on the Internet, software giant Microsoft offers to buy Yahoo for $44.6 billion.
    In a San Fransisco federal district court, Judge Jeffrey S. White orders the disabling of Wikileaks.org, a Web site that discloses confidential information. The case was brought by Julius Baer Bank and Trust, located in the Cayman Islands.