President Eisenhower requests funds to create ARPA. Approved as a line item in Air Force appropriations bill.
The Packet Switch
Len Kleinrock, Professor of Computer Science at UCLA, writes first paper on packet switching, "Information Flow in Large Communications Nets." Paper published in RLE Quarterly Progress Report.
•J.C.R. Licklider & W. Clark write first paper on Internet Concept, "On-Line Man Computer Communications."
• Len Kleinrock writes Communication Nets, which describes design for packet switching network; used for ARPAnet
The Message Blocks
Paul Baran writes, "On Distributed Communications Networks," first paper on using message blocks to send info across a decentralized networktopology.
First Network Experiment: Directed by Larry Roberts at MIT Lincoln Lab, two computers talked to each other using packet-switching technology.
The ARPA Project
ARPA project begins. Larry Roberts is chief scientist.
ARPANet contract given to Bolt, Beranek & Newman (BBN) in Cambridge, Mass.
The First Node
First ARPANet node installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center. Kleinrock hooked up the Interface Message Processor to a Sigma 7 Computer.
The Second Node
Second node installed at Stanford Research Institute; connected to a SDS 940 computer. The first ARPANet message sent: "lo." Trying to spell log-in, but the system crashed!
The Third Node
Third node installed at University of California, Santa Barbara. Connected to an IBM 360/75.
The Fourth Node
Fourth node installed at University of Utah. Connected to a DEC PDP-10.
The Fifth Node
Fifth node installed at BBN, across the country in Cambridge, Mass.
The Packet Radio Network
Alohanet, first packet radio network, became operational at University of Hawaii.
The @ Sign
First basic e-mail programs written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN for ARPANET: SNDMSG and READMAIL. "@" sign chosen for its "at" meaning.
The First International Connection
First ARPANET international connections to University College of London (England) and NORSAR (Norway).
• Intel releases the 8080 processor.
• Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection," which details the design of TCP.
The Apple & the Queen
•Apple Computer founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
• Queen Elizabeth II sends out an e-mail.
• Vint Cerf joins ARPA as program manager.
TCP split into TCP and IP
Bob Metcalfe and others found 3Com (Computer Communication Compatibility).
Tim Berners-Lee writes program called "Enquire Within," predecessor to the World Wide Web
PC & DOS
IBM announces its first Personal Computer.
Microsoft creates DOS.
Cisco Systems founded.
Domain Name System (DNS) designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Partridge. .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, and .int created.
Cyberspace and Mac
• William Gibson writes "Neuromancer." Coins the term "cyberspace".
• Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh on January 24th.
Symbolic ".com" becomes the first registered domain
5000 hosts on ARPAnet/Internet
The Host Increases
• 10,000 hosts on the Internet.
• First Cisco routershipped.
• 25 million PCs sold in US.
US Depart of Commerce outlines proposal to privatize DNS. ICANN created by Jon Postel to oversee privatization. Jon Postel dies.
McAfee & AOL
• 100,000 hosts on Internet.
• McAfee Associates founded; anti-virus software available for free. Quantum becomes America Online.
The World Wide Web
ARPAnet ends. Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web.
"Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.
The Web Grows
•Mosaic Web browser developed by Marc Andreesen at University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.
• Web grows by 341,000 percent in a year.
Amazon & Netscape
• Netscape Communications founded.
• Jeff Bezos writes the business plan for Amazon.com.
• Java's first public demonstration.
Microsoft licenses technology from Spyglass to create Web browser for Windows 95
Sun Microsystems releases Java.
Windows 95 released.
The Browser Wars
Domain name tv.com sold to CNET for $15,000. Browser wars begin. Netscape and Microsoft two biggest players.
business.com sold for $150,000.
The Browser War
Microsoft reaches a partial settlement with the Justice Department that allows personal computer makers to remove or hide its Internet software on new versions of Windows 95.
Netscape announces plans to give its browser away for free.
The Copyright War
•AOL buys Netscape; Andreesen steps down as full-time employee.
• Browsers wars declared over; Netscape and Microsoft share almost 100% of browser market.
• Microsoft declared a monopoly by US District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson.
•Shawn Fanning creates Napster, opening the possibilities of peer-to-peer file sharing and igniting a copyright war in the music industry.
Fixed wireless, high-speed Internet technology is now seen as a viable alternative to copper and fiber optic lines placed in the ground.
The Dot-Com Bubble bursts. A majority of the dot-coms ceased trading after burning through their venture capital, often without ever making a net profit.
• AOL Merges with Time-Warner. AOL shareholders take 55% stake in newly formed company.
A large-scale denial of service attack is launched against some major Web sites like Yahoo! and eBay, alerting Web sites to the need for tighter security measures.
10,000,000 domain names have been registered.
The Number Double
There are 20,000,000 websites on the Internet, numbers doubling since February 2000.
A federal judge rules that Napster must remain offline until it can prevent copyrighted material from being shared by its users.
The Code Red worm and Sircam virus infiltrate thousands of web servers and email accounts, respectively, causing a spike in Internet bandwidth usage and security breaches.
Treaty on Internet Offense
The European Council adopts the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet.
First uncompressed real-time gigabit HDTV transmission across a wide-area IP network takes place on Internet2.
.name begins resolving
Unofficial 20th Birthday
The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever, taking only 10 minutes to spread worldwide.
The Internet celebrates its 'unofficial' 20th birthday.
The RIAA sues 261 individuals for allegedly distributing copyright music files over peer-to-peer networks
The Research project "How much information 2003" finds that Instant messaging generates five billion messages a day (750GB), or 274 Terabytes a year and that e-mail generates about 400,000 terabytes of new information each year worldwide.
. YouTube.com launches
The Number Soars Higher
There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online
Blue Security Attack
A massive DDOS assault on Blue Security, an anti-spam company, is redirected by Blue Security staff to their Movable Type-hosted blog. The result is that the DDOS instead knocks out all access to over 1.8 million active blogs.
AOL announces that they will give for free virtually every service for which it charged a monthly fee, with income coming instead from advertising.
Google Acquires Youtube
There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online (some stats say over 100 million)
Google Inc. acquires YouTube for $1.65 billion in a stock-for-stock transaction.
Microsoft launches its various consumer versions of Microsoft Vista.
Apple surpasses one billion iTunes downloads.
1.114 billion people use the Internet according to Internet World Stats.
Search engine giant Google surpasses Microsoft as "the most valuable global brand," and also is the most visited Web site.