The Telegraph1802-1875 Charles Wheatstone made numerous discoveries and inventions in the fields of optics, acoustics and electricity. He is best known for his pioneering work on telegraphy.
The History of the Internet
Transatlantic telegraph cableThis is and undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. The first was laid across the floor of the Atlantic from Telegraph Field, western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland.
The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe by ten days
The History of the Telephone - Alexander Graham Belltwo inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won.
Thomas John Watson, Sr. (February 17, 1874 – June 19, 1956) was the chairman and CEO of International Business Machines (IBM)Although Watson is well known for his alleged 1943 statement, "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers", there is scant evidence he made it. Author Kevin Maney tried to find the origin of the quote, but has been unable to locate any speeches or documents of Watson's that contain this, nor are the words present in any contemporary articles about IBM.
Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space AgeSoviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball. It took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race.
Packet SwitchingPacket switching is the one idea that made the Internet possible. It is due to Leonard Kleinrock, in his PhD Thesis in 1962. Not only did Kleinrock invent packet switching, he also laid down the mathematical foundations for its analysis by modeling a packet-switched network as a queuing network.
Birth of That Thing We Call the InternetThe publication of the first “request for comments,” or RFC, documents paves the way for the birth of the internet. When it comes to the birth of the net Jan. 1, 1983, also has its supporters. On that date, the National Science Foundation’s university network backbone, a precursor to the World Wide Web, became operational.
People communicate over a network15 nodes (23 hosts) on ARPANET.
E-mail invented -- a program to send messages across a distributed network. E-mail is still the main way of inter-person communication on the Internet today.
We will study how to use and send E-mail shortly in this course.
You will make extensive use of E-mail for the rest of your life.
Computers can connect more freely and easilyFirst public demonstration of ARPANET between 40 machines.
Internetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need for establishing agreed upon protocols. Telnet specification
Telnet is still a relevant means of inter-machine connection today.
Global Networking becomes a realityFirst international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway)
Ethernet outlined -- this how local networks are basically connected today.
Internet ideas started.
Gateway architecture sketched on back of envelope in hotel lobby in San Francisco. Gateways define how large networks (maybe of different architecture) can be connected together.
File Transfer protocol specified -- how computers send and receive data.
Packets become mode of transferTransmission Control Program (TCP) specified. Packet network Intercommunication -- the basis of Internet Communication.
Telenet, a commercial version of ARPANET, opened -- the first public packet data service.
The Internet in New ZealandDSIR developed a net work that allowed a range of computer systems to communicate
Networking comes to manyQueen Elizabeth sends out an e-mail.
UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX. UNIX was and still is the main operating system used by universities and research establishments.
These machines could now ``talk'' over a network.
Networking exposed to many users worldwide.
E-mail takes off, Internet becomes a realityNumber of hosts breaks 100.
THEORYNET provides electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed E-mail system and TELENET for access to server).
First demonstration of ARPANET/Packet Radio Net/SATNET operation of Internet protocols over gateways.
News Groups bornComputer Science Department research computer network established in USA.
USENET established using UUCP. USENET still thrives today. First MUD (Multiuser Dungeon) -- interactive multiuser sites. Interactive adventure games, board games, rich and detailed databases.
ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB).
Packet Radio Networ
A collection of discussions groups, news groups.
3 news groups established by the end of the year
Almost any topic now has a discussion group.
Things start to come togetherBITNET, the "Because It's Time NETwork" Started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York, with the first connection to Yale Provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information, as well as file transfers
CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) established to provide networking services (specially E-mail) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET. CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network.
TCP/IP defines future communicationDCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET. Leads to one of the first definitions of an internet as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and Internet as connected TCP/IP internets.
Internet gets biggerName server developed Large number of nodes.
Hard to remember exact paths
Use meaningful names instead.
Desktop workstations come into being.Many with Berkeley UNIX which includes IP networking software.
Need switches from having a single, large time sharing computer connected to Internet per site, to connection of an entire local network. Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB
Berkeley releases new version of UNIX 4.2BSD incorporating TCP/IP.
EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established on similar lines to BITNET
Growth of Internet Continues
Victoria University of WellingtonEstablished 2400 bps dial-up link to Calgary University for email. Too small and slow for on-line discussion groupsUniversity of Canterbury established link to University of Waterloo in Canada
Power of Internet Realised5, 000 Hosts. 241 News groups.
NSFNET created (backbone speed of 56 Kbps)
NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all -- This allows an explosion of connections, especially from universities.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
Packet switchinglinks to Melbourne and the US established. Allowed email and Usenet news. Funded from the outset by reselling the connections to other interested organisations
Commercialisation of Internet BornNumber of hosts 28,000.
UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access.
NSFNET backbone upgradedNSFNET backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps)
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed
Large growth in InternetNumber of hosts breaks 100,000
First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the Internet
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB
University of WaikatoEstablished first Internet connection to the US via NASA 9600bps analogue cable to Hawaii. Nov 1989 - IP link between Waikato and the Internet established using DSIR Computer terminal connections
Expansion of Internet continues300,000 Hosts. 1,000 News groups
ARPANET ceases to exist
Archie released files can be searched and retrieved (FTP) by name.
The World comes on-line (world.std.com), becoming the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access.
Formation of Kawaihiko network(Auckland, Massey, Waikato, Canterbury, Lincoln and Otago Universities)
Modernisation BeginsCommercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. formed after NSF lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the Net.
Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) Provides a mechanism for indexing and accessing information on the Internet.
Large bodies of knowledge available: E-mail messages, text, electronic books, Usenet articles, computer code, image, graphics, sound files, databases etc..
These form the basis of the index of information we see on WWW today.
Friendly User Interface to WWW establishedGopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the U of Minnesota. Text based, menu-driven interface to access internet resources.
No need to remember or even know complex computer command. User Friendly Interface (?).
Largely superseded by WWW, these days.
Most Important development to dateWorld-Wide Web (WWW) released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee developer Originally developed to provide a distributed hypermedia system.
Easy access to any form of information anywhere in the world.
Initially non-graphic (this came later, MOSAIC, 1993).
Revolutionised modern communications and even our, way of life (?).
NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736 Mbps). NSFNET traffic passes 1 trillion bytes/month and 10 billion packets/month
Start of JANET IP Service (JIPS) using TCP/IP within the UK
DSIRConnected Gracefield, Wellington, Palmerston North, Christchurch and Hamilton.
Multimedia changes the face of the InternetNumber of hosts breaks 1 Million. News groups 4,000
Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered.
First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November).
The term "Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.
The WWW Revolution truly beginsNumber of Hosts 2 Million. 600 WWW sites.
InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services
directory and database services
Business and Media really take notice of the Internet.
US White House and United Nations (UN) comes on-line.
Mosaic takes the Internet by storm.
Tuia establishedNetwork of Crown research institutes, AgResearch and Kawaihiko
Internet in New Zealand95 Organisations
10000 Hosts directly connected (TuiaNet)
15000 Users with Indirect connections
Commercialisation beginsNumber of Hosts 3 Million. 10,000 WWW sites. 10,000 News groups.
ARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary
Local communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet (Lexington and Cambridge, Mass., USA)
US Senate and House provide information servers
Shopping malls, banks arrive on the Internet
A new way of life
You can now order pizza from the Hut online in the US.
First Virtual, the first cyberbank, open up for business
NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month
Commercialisation continues apaceCommercialisation continues apace
6.5 Million Hosts, 100,000 WWW Sites.
NSFNET reverts back to a research network. Main US backbone traffic now routed through interconnected network providers
WWW surpasses ftp-data in March as the service with greatest traffic on NSFNet based on packet count, and in April based on byte count
Traditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access
Microsoft enter12.8 Million Hosts, 0.5 Million WWW Sites.
Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
The WWW browser war begins , fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.
NZGateHanded management of Internet links to NetWay. (NetLink) and Clear Communications. Several 2mbps Internet links to US. 120kbps link to AustraliaInternet Society of NZ (ISOCNZ) took over domain name responsibility
DSL History in NZTelecom New Zealand began providing broadband internet by way of ADSL under the name JetStream. There was a progressive roll out into local exchanges. Telecom's JetStream services were offered by many different service providers, with Telecom billing for all data usage and the ISP charging for authentication and other services such as a static IP address.
The government mandatedUnbundled Bitstream Service (UBS) at a maximum upstream bandwidth of 128 kbit/s. This allowed ISPs to bill for their client's data usage. Telecom initially specified a 256 kbit/s downstream, but added 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s options later in the year. Telecom provided this in addition to the Jetstream plans.
TelecomIn late 2005 Telecom cancelled previous wholesale arrangements for JetStream plans with other ISPs. Only Telecom's own ISP, Xtra, could sell plans faster than the UBS options and they still offer the 8 Mbit/s/800 kbit/s plans - now exclusively. ISPs ihug and Slingshot are still lobbying to have full-speed access to ADSL, at up to 8 Mbit/s
Telecom announced its intentionTo offer a speed upgrade on their wholesale. It was reported that some providers would likely reject the offer, though Telecom believed that negotiations were continuing well. April 2006 - in April 2006 Telecom New Zealand introduced new cheaper services with download speeds up to 3.5 Mbit/s - some thought this was to avoid regulatory Local Loop Unbundling (LLU). May 2006 - Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) was announced as part of a comprehensive telecommunications package
Telecom starts to introduceADSL2+ into local exchanges through their roll-out programme.
Internet Pioneers in New ZealandAndy Linton - CityLink
Jonathon Stone - Stanford University
Mark Davies – University of Victoria
Nevil Brownlee – University of Auckland