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  • -- USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. Why is this relevant

    -- USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. Why is this relevant
    The start of global telecommunications. Satellites play an important role in transmitting all sorts of data today.
    In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military.
  • Period: to

    history of internet

  • Packet-switching (PS) networks developed Why is this relevant?

    As we will see later the Internet relies on packets to transfer data.
    The origin is military : for utmost security in transferring information of networks (no single outage point).
  • plan`s of arenet were published

  • Birth of internet

    First node at UCLA (Los Angeles) closely followed by nodes at Stanford Research Institute, UCSB (Santa Barbara) and U of Utah (4 Nodes).
  • -- People communicate over a network

    15 nodes (23 hosts) on ARPANET.
    E-mail invented -- a program to send messages across a distributed network. Why is this relevant? E-mail is still the main way of inter-person communication on the Internet today.
    We will study how to use and send E-mail shortly in this course.
    You will make extensive use of E-mail for the rest of your life.
  • -- Computers can connect more freely and easily

    First public demonstration of ARPANET between 40 machines.
    Internetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need for establishing agreed upon protocols. Why is this relevant? Telnet specification
    Telnet is still a relevant means of inter-machine connection today.
  • Global Networking becomes a reality

    Global Networking becomes a reality
    First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway)
    Ethernet outlined -- this how local networks are basically connected today.
    Internet ideas started.
    Gateway architecture sketched on back of envelope in hotel lobby in San Francisco. Gateways define how large networks (maybe of different architecture) can be connected together.
    File Transfer protocol specified -- how computers send and receive data.
  • -- Packets become mode of transfer

    Transmission Control Program (TCP) specified. Packet network Intercommunication -- the basis of Internet Communication.
    Telenet, a commercial version of ARPANET, opened -- the first public packet data service
  • TCP/IP

    each neetwork should be on it`s own with in each network
  • -- Networking comes to many

    Queen Elizabeth sends out an e-mail.
    UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX.
    Why is this relevant?
  • -- E-mail takes off, Internet becomes a reality

    -- E-mail takes off, Internet becomes a reality
    Number of hosts breaks 100.
    THEORYNET provides electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed E-mail system and TELENET for access to server).
    Mail specification
    First demonstration of ARPANET/Packet Radio Net/SATNET operation of Internet protocols over gateways.
  • Cont

    First MUD (Multiuser Dungeon) -- interactive multiuser sites. Interactive adventure games, board games, rich and detailed databases.
    ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB).
    Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with ARPA funding. Most communications take place between mobile vans.
  • News Groups born

    Computer Science Department research computer network established in USA.
    USENET established using UUCP.
  • -- Things start to come together

    BITNET, the "Because It's Time NETwork" Started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York, with the first connection to Yale Provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information, as well as file transfers
    CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) established to provide networking services (specially E-mail) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET. CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network.
  • -- TCP/IP defines future communication

    DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET.
    Why is this relevant? Leads to one of the first definitions of an internet as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and Internet as connected TCP/IP internets.
  • Internet gets bigger

    Number of hosts breaks 1,000.
    Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced. instead of 123.456.789.10
    it is easier to remember something like
    www.myuniversity.mydept.mynetwork.mycountry ( e.g. JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK
    Moderated newsgroups introduced on USENET.
  • intro DNS(data network srvecis) large volume of traffic

  • -- Power of Internet Realised

    5, 000 Hosts. 241 News groups.
    NSFNET created (backbone speed of 56 Kbps)
    NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all -- This allows an explosion of connections, especially from universities.
    Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
  • -- Commercialisation of Internet Born

    Number of hosts 28,000.
    UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access.
  • NSF net use of TCP/IP federal agences share cost infracstructure

  • -- Large growth in Internet

    Number of hosts breaks 100,000
    First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the Internet
    Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB
  • Expansion of Internet continues

    300,000 Hosts. 1,000 News groups
    ARPANET ceases to exist
    Archie released files can be searched and retrieved (FTP) by name.
    The World comes on-line (, becoming the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access.
  • Modernisation Begins

    Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. formed after NSF lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the Net.
    Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) Why is relevant? Provides a mechanism for indexing and accessing information on the Internet.
    Large bodies of knowledge available: E-mail messages, text, electronic books, Usenet articles, computer code, image, graphics, sound files, databases etc..
    These form the basis of the index of information we see on WWW today.
    Powerful se
  • -- Friendly User Interface to WWW established

    -- Friendly User Interface to WWW established
    Gopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the U of Minnesota. Why is relevant? Text based, menu-driven interface to access internet resources.
    No need to remember or even know complex computer command. User Friendly Interface (?).
    Largely superseded by WWW, these days.
  • Multimedia changes the face of the Internet

    Number of hosts breaks 1 Million. News groups 4,000
    Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered.
    First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November).
    The term "Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly
  • -- The WWW Revolution truly begins

    Number of Hosts 2 Million. 600 WWW sites.
    InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services
    directory and database services
    registration services
    information services
    Business and Media really take notice of the Internet.
    US White House and United Nations (UN) comes on-line.
    Mosaic takes the Internet by storm. Why is this relevant? User Friendly Graphical Front End to the World Wide Web.
    Develops into Netscape -- most popular WWW browser to date.
    WWW proliferates at a 3
  • -- Commercialisation begins

    Number of Hosts 3 Million. 10,000 WWW sites. 10,000 News groups.
    ARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary
    Local communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet (Lexington and Cambridge, Mass., USA)
    US Senate and House provide information servers
    Shopping malls, banks arrive on the Internet
    A new way of life
    You can now order pizza from the Hut online in the US.
    First Virtual, the first cyberbank, open up for business
    NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month
    WWW edges
  • Commercialisation continues apace

    6.5 Million Hosts, 100,000 WWW Sites.
    NSFNET reverts back to a research network. Main US backbone traffic now routed through interconnected network providers
    WWW surpasses ftp-data in March as the service with greatest traffic on NSFNet based on packet count, and in April based on byte count
    Traditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access
    A number of Net related companies go public, with Netscape leading the pack.
    Registration of dom
  • -- Microsoft enter

    -- Microsoft enter
    12.8 Million Hosts, 0.5 Million WWW Sites.
    Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
    The WWW browser war begins , fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions
  • -- What Next?

    19.5 Million Hosts, 1 Million WWW sites, 71,618 Newsgroups.
  • Google arrives

     Google arrives
    It pioneers a ranking system that uses links to assess a website's popularity. Google's simple design is soothing while existing search engines cram their pages with animated adverts.
  • Shawn Fanning launches Napster

    Shawn Fanning launches Napster
    The peer-to-peer software enables internet users to swap MP3 music files stored on their computers and to find each other through a central directory. Record labels are furious. By July 2001, they had effectively stopped Napster operating. (See my history of file sharing).
  • The dotcom bust

    After several years of venture capitalists throwing money at proposals with 'internet' on the cover, it all starts unravelling as many of these businesses fail to find a market and others realise they don't have a business plan.
  • US regulators approve the merger of AOL and Time Warner.

    US regulators approve the merger of AOL and Time Warner.
    Shareholders of relative upstart AOL own 55% of the new company. AOL started in 1985 and grew its modest internet connection business into one of the world's biggest media companies.
  • Nearly half of us are connected:

    UK telecomms regulator Oftel reports that 47% of UK homes have internet access and 58% have a PC. Of those online, 15% use broadband and 92% are satisfied with their service.
  • Mark Zuckerberg invented facebook at Harvard University.

     Mark Zuckerberg invented facebook at Harvard University.
    Within three years, the social networking site has 30 million members. By 2009, Facebook boasts of over 200 million active users (those who have logged in in the last 30 days).
  • The internet starts to threaten television and telephone companies

    Youtube launches to enable people to easily publish videos online. Within a year, Google acquires Youtube for $1.65 billion despite owning its own video site. At the time, Youtube users were uploading 65,000 new films and watching 100 million clips each day. Meanwhile, phone companies are threatened by free internet-based phone calls. Skype enables two million calls at any moment, and has a user base of 53 million. eBay acquires Skype for $2.6 billion (£1.4 billion), although it later fails to i
  • Twitter is created

    Twitter is created
    In stark contrast to the proliferation of lengthy blog posts online, Twitter messages are limited to 140 characters.
  • history of the internet

  • history of internet