The Timeline of the Network by Jong Eun Kim and Monica Andujar

  • The Telegraph

    The Telegraph
    The telegraph was the first method of sending messages across a distance via wires.
  • First Transatlantic Cable Operational

    First Transatlantic Cable Operational
    The Transatlantic Cable allowed direct instantaneous communication across the atlantic.
  • Invention of the Telephone

    Invention of the Telephone
    -Alexander Graham Bell exhibits the telephone.
    -The telephone paved the way for better communication.
  • Sputnik is Launched

    Sputnik is Launched
    -The first artificial earth satellite Sputnik is launched by USSR.
    -Wireless communication became possible for the first time through satellites.
    -The start of Global Telecommunications marked.
  • ARPA

    ARPA
    -In response to Sputnik, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is created by the US Department of Defense (DoD).
  • NLS

    NLS
    -Doug Engelbart prototypes an "oNLine System" (NLS) which does hypertext browsing and editing.
    -He invents the mouse for this purpose
  • Networks Developed

    -Military came up with a way to send informacion in tiny packets via the satellites, which made their information safer.
  • Communication through packet-switching

    Communication through packet-switching
    -Two computers at MIT Lincoln Lab communicate with one another using packet-switching technology.
  • First Version of IMP

    First Version of IMP
    -Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) reveals the final version of the Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications
  • Birth of Internet

    Birth of Internet
    -ARPANET is commissioned by DoD for research into networking.
    -ARPANET was invented to help the government communicate within its own departments.
  • Email Invented

    Email Invented
    -There were 15 nodes (23 hosts) on ARPANET
    -Email, a program to send messages across a distributed network, was invented.
  • First Large Scale Trial

    First Large Scale Trial
    -First public demonstration of ARPANET took place, connecting 40 machines.
    -Internetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need for establishing agreed upon protocols.
    -BBN's Ray Tomlinson introduced Network Email.
  • Global Networking Takes Place

    Global Networking Takes Place
    -First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway).
    -The term of Internet is born.
    -File Transfer protocol specified; how computers send and receive data.
  • First Public Internet

    First Public Internet
    -First Internet Service Provider (ISP) is born with the introduction of commercial version of ARPANET, as TELENET.It became the first public packet data service.
    -Transmission Control Program (TCP) is specified.
    -Packet network Intercommunication becomes the basis of Internet Communication.
  • USENET & Discussion Groups

    USENET & Discussion Groups
    -Users Network (USENET), established using UUCP, forms to host news and discussion groups.
    -Computer Science Department research computer network established in USA.
  • National Science Foundation

    National Science Foundation
    -The National Science Foundation (NSF) provided a grant to establish the Computer Science Network (CSNET) to provide networking services to university computer scientists.
    -CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) established to provide networking services (specially E-mail) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET.
    -CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network.
  • TCP/IP Defines Future Communication

    TCP/IP Defines Future Communication
    -Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), commonly known as TCP/IP, emerge as the protocol for ARPANET.
    -EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide E-mail and USENET services.
  • Internet Gets Bigger

    Internet Gets Bigger
    -The Domain Name System (DNS) establishes the familiar .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, and .int system for naming website instead of previous designation for websites, such as 123,456,789,10.
  • Cyberspace

    Cyberspace
    -William Gibson, author of "Neuromancer" is the first to use the term "cyberspace".
    -Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB
    -EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established on similar lines to BITNET
    -JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK
    -Moderated newsgroups introduced on USENET.
  • Symbolics.com

    Symbolics.com
    -The Website for Symbolics Computer Corp. in Massachussetts, Symbolics.com, becomes the first registered domain.
  • Spreading of Internet Users

    Spreading of Internet Users
    -The National Science Foundation's NSFNET goes online to connected supercomputer centers.
    -The NSFNET was a network of networks that connected academic users along with the ARPANET.
    -Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
  • First Router

    First Router
    -Cisco ships its first router
    -The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 20,000.
    -UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access.
  • World.std.com

    World.std.com
    -World.std.com becomes the first commercial provider of dial-up access to the internet.
    -Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed
  • HTML Created

    HTML Created
    -Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, develops Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML).
    -ARPANET ceases to exist
  • World Wide Web

    World Wide Web
    -Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web, making possible the connection with anyone on the web.
    -CERN introduces the World Wide Web to the public
    -Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS)
  • Multimedia changes the face of the Internet

    Multimedia changes the face of the Internet
    -The first MBONE audio multicast and video multicast are distributed over the internet.
    -The phrase "surfing the internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.
    -Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered.
  • The WWW Revolution truly begins

    -Number of hosts reach 2 Million and 600 WWW sites.
    -InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services, registration services, information services.
    -US White House and United Nations (UN) comes on-line.
    -Business and Media really take notice of the Internet
  • Commercialisation begins

    -Number of hosts reach 3 Million, 10,000 WWW sites, and 10,000 News groups
    -US Senate and House provide information servers
    -Shopping malls, banks arrive on the Internet.
    -UK's HM Treasury on-line (http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/)
  • Commercialisation continues apace

    Commercialisation continues apace
    -6.5 Million Hosts, 100,000 WWW Sites.
    -A number of Net related companies go public, with Netscape leading the pack.
    -Registration of domain names is no longer free.
    -New WWW technologies Emerge Technologies: Mobile code (JAVA, JAVAscript, ActiveX), Virtual environments (VRML), and Collaborative tools (CU-SeeMe)
  • Microsoft enter

    Microsoft enter
    -50 Million Regular Internet Users
    -Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
    -The WWW browser war begins , fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.
  • Social Media

    Social Media
    -Facebook goes online and the era of social networking beings.
    -Mozilla unveils the Mozilla Firefox browser.
  • Youtube

    Youtube
    -YouTube.com is launched
  • IGF

    IGF
    -AOL changes its business model, offering most services for free, and relying on advertising to generate revenue.
    -The Internet Governance Forum meets for the first time
  • Internet

    Internet
    -Twitter and Facebook play a large role in the Middle East revolts.