The telegraph was the first method of sending messages across a distance via wires.
First Transatlantic Cable Operational
The Transatlantic Cable allowed direct instantaneous communication across the atlantic.
Invention of the Telephone
-Alexander Graham Bell exhibits the telephone.
-The telephone paved the way for better communication.
Sputnik is Launched
-The first artificial earth satellite Sputnik is launched by USSR.
-Wireless communication became possible for the first time through satellites.
-The start of Global Telecommunications marked.
-In response to Sputnik, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is created by the US Department of Defense (DoD).
-Doug Engelbart prototypes an "oNLine System" (NLS) which does hypertext browsing and editing.
-He invents the mouse for this purpose
-Military came up with a way to send informacion in tiny packets via the satellites, which made their information safer.
Communication through packet-switching
-Two computers at MIT Lincoln Lab communicate with one another using packet-switching technology.
First Version of IMP
-Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) reveals the final version of the Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications
Birth of Internet
-ARPANET is commissioned by DoD for research into networking.
-ARPANET was invented to help the government communicate within its own departments.
-There were 15 nodes (23 hosts) on ARPANET
-Email, a program to send messages across a distributed network, was invented.
First Large Scale Trial
-First public demonstration of ARPANET took place, connecting 40 machines.
-Internetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need for establishing agreed upon protocols.
-BBN's Ray Tomlinson introduced Network Email.
Global Networking Takes Place
-First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway).
-The term of Internet is born.
-File Transfer protocol specified; how computers send and receive data.
First Public Internet
-First Internet Service Provider (ISP) is born with the introduction of commercial version of ARPANET, as TELENET.It became the first public packet data service.
-Transmission Control Program (TCP) is specified.
-Packet network Intercommunication becomes the basis of Internet Communication.
USENET & Discussion Groups
-Users Network (USENET), established using UUCP, forms to host news and discussion groups.
-Computer Science Department research computer network established in USA.
National Science Foundation
-The National Science Foundation (NSF) provided a grant to establish the Computer Science Network (CSNET) to provide networking services to university computer scientists.
-CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) established to provide networking services (specially E-mail) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET.
-CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network.
TCP/IP Defines Future Communication
-Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), commonly known as TCP/IP, emerge as the protocol for ARPANET.
-EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide E-mail and USENET services.
Internet Gets Bigger
-The Domain Name System (DNS) establishes the familiar .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, and .int system for naming website instead of previous designation for websites, such as 123,456,789,10.
-William Gibson, author of "Neuromancer" is the first to use the term "cyberspace".
-Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB
-EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established on similar lines to BITNET
-JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK
-Moderated newsgroups introduced on USENET.
-The Website for Symbolics Computer Corp. in Massachussetts, Symbolics.com, becomes the first registered domain.
Spreading of Internet Users
-The National Science Foundation's NSFNET goes online to connected supercomputer centers.
-The NSFNET was a network of networks that connected academic users along with the ARPANET.
-Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
-Cisco ships its first router
-The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 20,000.
-UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access.
-World.std.com becomes the first commercial provider of dial-up access to the internet.
-Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed
-Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, develops Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML).
-ARPANET ceases to exist
World Wide Web
-Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web, making possible the connection with anyone on the web.
-CERN introduces the World Wide Web to the public
-Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS)
Multimedia changes the face of the Internet
-The first MBONE audio multicast and video multicast are distributed over the internet.
-The phrase "surfing the internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly.
-Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered.
The WWW Revolution truly begins
-Number of hosts reach 2 Million and 600 WWW sites.
-InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services, registration services, information services.
-US White House and United Nations (UN) comes on-line.
-Business and Media really take notice of the Internet
-Number of hosts reach 3 Million, 10,000 WWW sites, and 10,000 News groups
-US Senate and House provide information servers
-Shopping malls, banks arrive on the Internet.
-UK's HM Treasury on-line (http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/)
Commercialisation continues apace
-6.5 Million Hosts, 100,000 WWW Sites.
-A number of Net related companies go public, with Netscape leading the pack.
-Registration of domain names is no longer free.
-50 Million Regular Internet Users
-Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
-The WWW browser war begins , fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.
-Facebook goes online and the era of social networking beings.
-Mozilla unveils the Mozilla Firefox browser.
-YouTube.com is launched
-AOL changes its business model, offering most services for free, and relying on advertising to generate revenue.
-The Internet Governance Forum meets for the first time
-Twitter and Facebook play a large role in the Middle East revolts.