Unit 2: Spanish American War

  • Immigration

    Immigration
    Immigration is when you move from your current place of residence to a new, foreign country permanently. Immigration in America started in the early 1600s with the first Europeans and saw immigration numbers in the hundreds of thousands in regard to African slaves. In the 1800s, immigrants numbered in the millions and came from all over the world, playing a large role in both industrialization and urbanization due to population numbers.
  • Industrialization

    Industrialization
    Industrialization is described as "the development of industries in a country/region on a wide scale". The early 1800s and the "Industrial Revolution" were a period of massive improvement in which there was less manual labor and more technology and machine based work. This amount of industrialization provided economic and productive progress in America.
  • Missionaries

    Missionaries
    Missionaries were important figures in westward expansion. In Hawaii in the 1820s, missionaries tried to bring Christianity to the islands Christianity would eventually become a very influential and prominent religion in the Hawaiian islands, with half of all people there practicing some denomination of Christianity.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was an official federal statement that said that the U.S. opposed further European colonization of and interference with independent nations in the Western Hemisphere. The Monroe Doctrine helped ensure that European nations like Spain would not regain control of independent former colonies.
  • Americanization

    Americanization
    Americanization is the effect of American culture on other nations and their societies. It is how our business and society impacts those of other countries. You can see examples of Americanization in everything from other countries' food, pop culture, technology, government and politics, business, media, etc.
  • Sanford Ballard Dole

    Sanford Ballard Dole
    Sanford Dole was the president of the Republic of Hawaii, and after 1898, the first governor for the Territory of Hawaii. He was a supporter of Hawaiian westernization and wanted to enrich Hawaiian government and culture. He was a descendent of earlier missionaries and, with a group, was responsible for overthrowing Queen Liliuokalani to serve as president in the new American colony of Hawaii.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge

    Henry Cabot Lodge
    Henry Cabot Lodge was an American Congressman and member of the House of Representatives and the Senate. He is known for his involvement in the Treaty of Versailles and also for his leadership in the fight against the League of Nations, which was an international organization with the purpose of maintaining world peace through solving disputes.
  • Rural

    Rural
    Rural population did not grow as rapidly as that of urban cities, however the majority of Americans still lived in rural areas. With the Homestead Act, Exodusters, and settlers in general, the rural areas of the west began to grow more and more, but settlers here faced their own problems as well. Life was hard and monotonous, and much less exciting or enticing as city life in the East. Despite this, rural populations steadily grew to become the America we know today.
  • Homesteader

    Homesteader
    Homesteaders were people who grew crops and lived off government-given farmland. Homesteaders faced countless hardships, including harsh climates and living conditions, oftentimes lack of food or water, spread of disease, and many more. Despite this, in the 1800s, mass amounts of homesteaders began settling the western frontier, especially after the Homestead Act of 1862.
  • Homestead Act of 1862

    Homestead Act of 1862
    The Homestead Act of 1862, signed by President Lincoln, was meant to encourage settlers to move into the western frontier by offering them 160 acres of land in exchange for 5 years of residence on the land and then the option to purchase it for $1.25/acre. By 1900, the U.S. government had dealt out about 80 million acres using this method of settling the frontier.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment abolished slavery and made it illegal. However, slavery and "involuntary servitude" were actually still permitted if they were a punishment for crime. It was ratified by all the states by December 1865 and is considered the greatest change brought by the Civil War.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment to the Constitution says that anyone born in the United States is consequently a citizen of America. The amendment was created due to questions surrounding the rights and citizenship of African-Americans descended from slaves. It restricted the states from withholding the basic rights of citizens.
  • Imperialism

    Imperialism
    Imperialism is when larger, stronger nations took over smaller countries to rule them and make them colonies of their own country. It was expansion and the imperialists assumed direct control of the new colony. European powers such as Spain or Britain. America began seeking imperialism during the Spanish-American war, when it began to develop colonies in different regions of the world.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15th Amendment to the Constitution says that the right to vote should not be determined based upon race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This prevented both the states and America itself from discriminating and restricting the right to vote for all people. It was the final amendment of what was considered the "Reconstruction Amendments".
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    Transcontinental Railroad
    The Transcontinental Railroad was started in 1863 and ran from the east to the west much quicker and cheaper than ever before. It revolutionized travel and was a major industrialization feat. The Gadsden Purchase was bought to complete the railroad.
  • Great Plains

    Great Plains
    In the 1800s, the Great Plains were not desirable places to live due to the difficult farming atmosphere. Because of this, land here was cheap and easier to obtain. Exodusters (named for their "exodus") were a group of African-Americans who moved to the Great Plains in 1879 due to a rumor about land being offered in the west. This, in turn, resulted in thousands of African-Americans migrating from the south towards these areas in hopes of a better life.
  • Assimilation

    Assimilation
    Assimilation is when information, ideas, identity, or culture of a minority group/culture begins to evolve into those of a more commanding group.The often smaller, possibly more inferior group's customs become melted together with those of the dominant group. Through this process, unique society, culture, traditions, and individuality of native and foreign cultures dissipated in early America.
  • Urban

    Urban
    Urban life in the 1880s was generally overcrowded and poorly planned. Many immigrants moved to cities, contributing to booming populations. Work was different in city, with factory and mill jobs available. Due to so many people living in often small areas, architects began to build up instead of out, developing the skylines cities are known for. Cities grew quickly and consistently and maintained their importance.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act was a law placed in 1882 by the United States government that forbid any person of Asian lineage from entry in the United States. A new California law passed in 1858 made it illegal to hire a Chinese laborer, and Chinese began to riot in the U.S. The government eventually passed this act to keep out the Chinese.
  • Urbanization

    Urbanization
    Urbanization is the development of a rural area usually regarding influx of population and infrastructure. Due to industrial progress, cities boomed and formed fast. The amount of foreign immigrants also contributed to the growth of these areas.
  • "Closing of the Western Frontier"

    "Closing of the Western Frontier"
    In 1890, Congress declared that the frontier was over as there was no longer any more physical land in America left to settle. After settlers dispersed all the way to the West coast, the physical borders of North America necessitated the end of the frontier. The closing of the western frontier brought with it the end of an era of exploration and migration for America and many immigrants.
  • Yellow Journalism

    Yellow Journalism
    Yellow journalism began in the 1890s and was newspapers or propaganda that was usually very exaggerative in nature. The purpose of most yellow journalism around this time period was the anger Americans and push the U.S. into war with Spain.
  • Alred Thayer Mahan

    Alred Thayer Mahan
    Alfred T. Mahan was an American naval officer, historian, and writer best known for writing the book, "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History," in 1890. He also called the United States "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." He wrote and spoke about how naval power played a significant role on history.
  • Klondike Gold Rush

    Klondike Gold Rush
    The Klondike Gold Rush was the discovery of gold in the Klondike region of Alaska and the subsequent migration of hundreds of thousands of hopeful miners. Through 1897-1898, people steadily flooded into the north after word of gold.
  • Naval Stations

    Naval Stations
    America's navy during the 19th century expanded greatly in power and credibility. After the Spanish-American War, there were naval bases in the new American-owned colonies of the Philippines and Hawaii, and the strength of the navy grew to be the second strongest in the world.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    The Spanish-American war between the U.S. and Spain was begun after the bombing of the American naval ship, the USS Maine in Cuba.The U.S. supported many countries in their bids for independence from Spain such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines due to their ulterior motive of taking over these areas for themselves. America eventually won the war in August of 1898 and with it, won Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and also annexed Hawaii during this time.
  • Acquisitions

    Acquisitions
    Acquisitions of the Spanish-American War included: Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Though Cuba technically gained their independence, American soldiers resided there for many years and often participated in politics.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore, or Teddy, Roosevelt was an American political figure and writer who was the 26th President of the United States. Teddy gained a lot of popularity from his time in the navy, which he spent up until 1898. He was an avid part of the Spanish-American War and served as Vice President until President Mckinley was assassinated, then assuming the office of President.