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US Foreign Policy II: 1810-1945

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    Isolation and Neutrality

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    Westward Expansion of US Territory

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    Latin American Wars of Independence

  • Monroe Doctrine

    The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. The Doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.
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    Expansionism and Imperialism

  • Agreement that guaranteed American access to the Panama Canal

    The Mallarino-Bidlack Treaty (also known as the Bidlack Treaty and Treaty of New Granada) was a treaty signed between New Granada (today Colombia and Panama) and the United States, on December 12, 1846. U.S. minister Benjamin Alden Bidlack negotiated the pact with New Granada's commissioner Manuel María Mallarino. The end result of the treaty, however, was to give the United States a legal opening in politically and economically influencing the Panama isthmus, which was part of New Granada at...
  • Hawaii made US protectorate

  • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

    Neither the United States not Great Britain would try to dominate Central America or any part of it or acquire exclusive rights to the Panama canal.
  • Commodore Perry opens Japan

    On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa ("Japan-US Treaty of Amity and Friendship") or Kanagawa Treaty was concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate. The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however, the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence in these locations.
  • Treaty of Kanagawa

    The Kanagawa Treaty was concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate. The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however, the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence in these locations.
  • Seward's Folly

    The Alaska Purchase was the acquisition of the Alaska territory by the United States from Russia in the year 1867 by a treaty ratified by the Senate. The purchase, made at the initiative of United States Secretary of State William H. Seward, gained 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km2) of new United States territory. Originally organized as the Department of Alaska, the area was successively the District of Alaska and the Alaska Territory before becoming the modern state of Alaska upon being a...
  • Reciprocity Treaty

    The Treaty of reciprocity between the United States of America and the Hawaiian Kingdom was a free trade agreement signed and ratified in 1875 that is generally known as the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.The treaty gave free access to the United States market for sugar and other products grown in the Kingdom of Hawaii starting in September 1876. In return, the US gained lands in the area known as Puʻu Loa for what became known as the Pearl Harbor naval base. The treaty led to large investment by A.
  • Oriental (Chinese) Exclusion Act

    The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years. This law was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943.
  • US refuses to recognize rebel blockade in Brazil

    Rebel forces in Brazil blockaded Rio de Janeiro. The US, in order to protect a potentially important market and to check British influence there, refused to recognize the blockade and unloaded their cargoes without interference. American warships were sent in late 1894 to suppress the uprising.
  • Sanford Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii

    The Republic of Hawaiʻi was the formal name of the government that controlled Hawaiʻi from 1894 to 1898 when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaiʻi which ended on July 4, 1894, and the adoption of the Newlands Resolution in the United States Congress in which the Republic was annexed to the United States and became the Territory of Hawaiʻi on July 7, 1898. The Hawaiian kingdom was overthrown in 1893 as a result..
  • Venezuelan Crisis

    Richard Olney, quoting the Monroe Doctrine stated that US would intervene in the actions a European power in the Western Hemisphere when it posed a "serious and direct menace to its own integrity and welfare". "In effect Olney claimed hegemony for the US in Latin America". (Keen, 546) End of British dominion in L.A.
  • Spanish-American War

    Established the US as a full-fledged imerial power: gained protectorship over Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines - formerly under Spanish dominion.
  • Hawaiian Annexation

    The Newlands Resolution, was a joint resolution written by and named after United States Congressman Francis G. Newlands. It was an Act of Congress to annex the Republic of Hawaii and create the Territory of Hawaii. In 1898 President of the United States William McKinley signed the treaty of annexation for Hawaii, but it failed in the Senate after the 38,000 signatures of the Ku’e Petitions were submitted. After the failure, Hawaii was annexed by means of joint resolution, called the Newlands...
  • Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris of 1898, 30 Stat. 1754, was an agreement made in 1898 that resulted in Spain surrendering control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, parts of the West Indies, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States in exchange for a payment of twenty million dollars. It was signed on December 10, 1898, at the end of the Spanish-American War, and came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the ratifications were exchanged. The Treaty signaled the end of the Spanish Empire in America and the Pa...
  • Boxer Rebellion

    The Boxer Rebellion, also known as Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was a proto-nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony Society in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to foreign "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism.
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

    Formal British recognition of US hegemony in Latin America. Allowed the US to unilaterally build, control, and fortify an isthmian canal. In 1906, Britain withdrew its fleet from the Caribbean.
  • US Marines stationed in Panama

    To protect US interests while the canal was under construction. US disbanded the Panamaian army and assumed resposibility of defending Panama against external threat. (Until 1914)
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Justified US actions in the Caribbean, maintaining the US, as a "civilized" nation, had to "right" to end the "chronic wrongdoing" in the region.
  • Gentleman's Agreement

    The Root–Takahira Agreement was an agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan negotiated between United States Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Takahira Kogorō. Signed on 30 November 1908, the agreement consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John H...
  • US-backed revolution in Nicaragua

    August 1912, the President of Nicaragua, Adolfo Díaz, requested that the Secretary of War, General Luis Mena, resign for fear that he was leading an insurrection. Mena fled Managua with his brother, the Chief of Police of Managua, to start an insurrection. When the U.S. Legation asked President Díaz to ensure the safety of American citizens and property during the insurrection he replied that he could not and that...
    In consequence my Government desires that the Government of the United State...
  • Marines occupied the ports of Veracruz and Tampico, Mexico

    The United States occupation of Veracruz, which began with the Battle of Veracruz, lasted for six months and was a response to the Tampico Affair of April 9, 1914. The incident came in the midst of poor diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States, related to the ongoing Mexican Revolution.
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    Neutrality

  • Completion of the Panama Canal

    A grand celebration was originally planned for the official opening of the canal, as befitting so great an effort which had aroused strong feelings for many years. However, the outbreak of World War I forced cancellation of the main festivities, and the grand opening became a modest local affair. The Panama Railway steamship SS Ancon, piloted by Captain John A. Constantine, the Canal's first pilot, made the first official transit of the canal on August 15, 1914. There were no international di...
  • W. Wilson sent Marines into the Dominican Republic

    Wilson thus ordered the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic. U.S. Marines landed on May 16, 1916, and had control of the country two months later. The military government established by the U.S., led by Rear Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp, was widely repudiated by Dominicans. U.S. naval officers had to fill some cabinet posts, as Dominicans refused to serve in the administration. Censorship and limits on public speech were imposed. The guerrilla war against the U.S. forces was met with a v...
  • Pershing Expedition

    The Pancho Villa Expedition—officially known in the United States as the Mexican Expedition and sometimes colloquially referred to as the Punitive Expedition—was a military operation conducted by the United States Army against the paramilitary forces of Mexican revolutionary Francisco "Pancho" Villa from 1916 to 1917 during the Mexican Revolution. The expedition was launched in retaliation for Villa's attack on the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and was the most remembered event of the Border ...
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    US-Maintained Dictatorship in the Dominican Republic

  • Zimmerman Telegram

    The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note) was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the contents outraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April.
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    Internationalism

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    Isolation and Neutrality

  • Shift in US policies (less agressive)

    In foreign policy the nation never joined the League of Nations, but instead took the initiative to disarm the world, most notably at the Washington Conference in 1921-1922. Washington also stabilized the European economy through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at stabilizing the traditional ethnic balance and strictly limiting the total inflow.
  • Clark Memorandum

    The Clark Memorandum on the Monroe Doctrine or Clark Memorandum, written on December 17, 1928 by Calvin Coolidge’s undersecretary of state J. Reuben Clark, concerned the United States' use of military force to intervene in Latin American nations. This memorandum was officially released in 1930 by the Herbert Hoover administration. The Clark memorandum rejected the view that the Roosevelt Corollary was based on the Monroe Doctrine. However, it was not a complete repudiation of the Roosevelt Co...
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    Internationalism

  • Good Neighbor Policy

    The Good Neighbor policy was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a “good neighbor” and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new ec
  • Batista rises in Cuba with US support

    Batista initially rose to power as part of the 1933 "Revolt of the Sergeants" that overthrew the authoritarian rule of Gerardo Machado. Batista then appointed himself chief of the armed forces with the rank of colonel, and effectively controlled the five-member Presidency. He maintained this control through a string of puppet presidents until 1940, when he was himself elected President of Cuba on a populist platform. He then instated the 1940 Constitution of Cuba, deemed progressive for it...
  • Non-intervention in Mexico

    Central to Cárdenas's project were nationalistic economic policies involving Mexico's vast oil production, supplying approximately 20 percent of domestic demand in the United States.
  • Mexican–American War

    The Mexican–American War was an armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the major consequence of the war: the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $18 million.