Foreign Relation Milestones (Outside of War)

  • Albany Plan of Union

    Albany Plan of Union
    This plan was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress to form one union of colonies during the French and Indian War. Ben Franklin deemed this plan as necesary for security of the colonies.
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    This law was passed by the Britsh Parliament as it repealed the Stamp Act. It asserted Parliament's authority to make binding laws on American colonies.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    John Jay negotiated this treaty with Great Britain to get them to agree on regulations of navigation nad trade. and correct problems of the Treaty of Paris of 1793.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    Three French agents reffered to as X, Y, and Z demanded concessions from the United States as a condition to continue peace negotiations. The agents demanded money and an apology from John Adams, the U.S. president. this event led to strained relations between France and the U.S. and to the Quasi War.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Naturalization Act required that people be residents for at least 14 years to be eligible for a citizenship.
    The Alien Act allowed the president to deport aliens who were deemed as dangerous to the U.S.
    The Sedition Act declared that any form of treason, including publications deemed malicious or scandelous, is punishable by imprisonment and fine.
  • Embargo Act

    Embargo Act
    This was a law that Jefferson passed to prvent the United States from trading with Europe during the Napoleonic wars. This severely damaged the U.S's economy and led to a surplus of goods sitting in warehouses which should have been exported. The intention was to declare American neutrality as Britian and France were at war with eachother at the time. Many traders resorted to smuggling goods.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    This document was meant to prevent European nations from meddling in affairs of the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. in turn had to stay out of European affairs. It was also meant to protect the U.S. economic interests and national security.
  • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

    Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    Zacharay Taylor's secretay of state, John Clayton made this aggreement with British representative Henry Bulwer. England and the US were not to seek exclusive control of the canal or surrounding territory, nor where they allowed to establish colonies in Central America.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act gave out free land plots of 160 acres in order to be developed by homesteaders. This spurred immigrants from overpopulated countries to travel here due to the attraction of free land.
  • New Immigration

    New Immigration
    From 1865 to 1900, a diverse and enormous amount of immigrants, mostly from Eastern & Southern Europe, traveled to America. Approximately 27.5 million immigrants from nations such as Italy, Germany, Russia, Greece, Sweden, and Norway. Many Jewish, Mormon, Catholic, and other non-protestant people traveled to America as well. Those who made the trans-Atlantic voyage were processed in Ellis Island, NY. Those who traveled to the U.S. via the Pacific Ocean were processed in Angel Island, CA.
  • "Seward's Folly": Alaska Purchase

    "Seward's Folly": Alaska Purchase
  • Reciprocity Treaty

    Reciprocity Treaty
    The Reciprocity Treaty established free trade with Hawaii and the US because the McKinley Tariff hurt sugar exports.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act banned Chinese immgration to the United States from 1882 to 1943. The Exclusion Act was signed into law by Chester A. Arthur on May 8, 1882 after being vetoed by Hayes in 1879. The act was later repealed by the Magnum Act in 1943.
  • Statue of Liberty

  • Pearl Harbor Leased

    1887 the US leased Pearl harbor as a Navy Base.
  • First Pan-American Conference

  • McKinley Tariff

    The McKinley Tariff was the highest tariff ever ineffect in the US. This affectes the United States Forgein Policy by putting a tax on imported goods. Other countries would have less of a market in America and make less of a profit, strianing relationships.
  • Planter's Revolt (Hawaii)

    Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii overthrown by US sugar farmers . US troops prevented the native Hawaiians from supporting the Queen.President Cleveland did not want to annex Hawaii because he felt we and wronged them and most Hawaiians did not want to join the US. However Hawaii was annexed in 1898.
  • Philippines

    The United States brought medicine and school to the Philippines after obtianing them from Spain but were just as bad at governing as Spain and did not leave when the Spanish didi like we said we would.
  • U.S.S. Maine Explosion

    The Maine, which was meant to provide protection for Americans in Cuba, exploded in Havana Harbor. The explosion killed 260 sailors and injured many more. "Remember the Maine" becamea popular mantra that pushed Mckinley to declare war on Spain.
  • Teller Amendment

    This amendment intended to ensure Cuban independence after the Spanish-American War ended.
  • Treaty of Paris

    This treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Spain was to remove all troops from Cuba and to recognize America's authority there. The United States paided Spain $20million for Guam Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
  • De Lôme Letter

     De Lôme Letter
    This letter written by a Spanish minister was leaked in Heart's "Journal". Enrique Dupuy de Lôme wrtoe that President Mckinley was corrupt, and Americans took it as a direct insult from Spain.
  • "Open Door Policy"

    Secretary of State, John Hay issued this policy so America could benefit ecnomically from China as well. The idea states that China and the surrounding regions should be able to freely trade with any nation and not be strictly controlled under the spheres of influences that Japan and other European nations carved out.
  • Foraker Act

    McKinley signed this civil law, which gave limited self government to Puerto Rico. This law went into effect at the close of the Spanish-American War, after Puerto Rico was annexed from Spain.
  • Hay - Pauncefote Treaty

    The Colombian government did not agree to this treaty, in which the British granted full construction rights to the US. Thus, the nation of Panama would have to be created quickly.
  • Platt Amendment

    The US issued this amendment which stated that Cuba had to write into thier new constitution to gain freedom. Also, Cuba had to have all treaties approved by the US
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    As an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, the US would come to the aid of any Latin American country experiencing economic hardship. Thus, the US took on the role of being Latin America's police officer.
  • Treaty of Portsmouth

    This treaty was signed to end the Russo-Japanese War of 1904, which was a fight over land and ports in Korea and Manchuria. Roosevelt intervened, as he didn't want either nation winning control over the regions. TR won the Nobel PEace Prize for his mediation in this treaty.
  • "Gentlemen's Agreement"

    This aggreement occurred between the Sna Francisco School Board and the Japenese governement. It was aggreed that the school would let Japanese students into the school system if the government of Japan would lessen the great stream of immigrants coming to California.
  • Great White Fleet

    Roosevelt sent the US navy to sail around the world as a display of power, especially to show off strength to Japan. As a result, the relations between Japan and the US were rather strained.
  • Root–Takahira Agreement

    This was an agreement between Japan and the US to maintain a territorial status quo and affrim the independence of China's territory.
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    Dollar Diplomacy

    President Taft and Secretary of State Knox followed the policy of Dollar Diplomacy with the inent of creating stability abroad, thus promoting American commercial interests. This policy was evident in US intervention in China, Cuba, and Cnetral America. Taft wanted to counter Japanese advances in China by building a railway for the US's benefit.
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    Moral Diplomacy

    Wilson's belief in the superiority of American democracy and thought it was his duty to spread this ideal to protect other nations from totalitarianism. This provided the justification for Wilson's invasion of Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and the purchase of the Virgin Islands.
  • Underwood Tariff Act

    Sponsered by Oscar Underwood, Wilson signed this legislation to levy an income tax to salaries exceeding $4000 since less revenue was being incurred through tarriffs on foreign goods. The act intended to encourage foreign importation by lowering the prices on foreign goods. The act became relatively ineffective once WWI began in 1914.
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    American Involvement in Latin America

    U.S. troops withdrew from the Dominican Republic in 1924, but remained in Haiti from 1914 to 1934.
    Coolidge withdrew troops from Nicaragua in 1925, and then sent them back the next year, and in 1926, he sent tropps to Mexico due to oil conflicts.
    Latin America did not really appreciate American Involvement.
  • Sinking of Lusitania

    German U-boats sunk this British luxory liner off the coast of Ireland, killing 1200 and 130 Americans. Wilson issued a stern warning to the Germans to stop submarine attacks on unarmed ships.
  • Pancho Villa Expedition

    After Pancho Villa's rival, Carranza became president of Mexico, he killed 16 Americans. His insurgent forces killed 19 more people in New Mexico. In response, Wilson sent General John Pershing to fight Carranza's and Villa's troops. However, Pancho Villa wasn't captured by the Americans, but by a Mexican rival.
  • Sussex Ultimatum

    After Germans attacked the French passenger liner, Sussex, killing four Americans, Wilson warned that the US would break all diplomatic relations with Germany should they continue U-boat warfare.Germany agreed to cease submarine warfare if the US convinced Britain to lift the blockade.
  • Jones Act

    The Jones Act of 1916 promised that the US would grant the Philippines with independence once a stable, more autonomous government was established. The act also created hte Philipine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    WIlson learned that a British agent had intercepted and decoded a letter from the German Foreign Secretary Zimmermna to the German ambassador to Mexico. The letter promised that the German gov that they would help Mexico gain back the territory they lost in the Mexican-American War after Germany's victory in the present war. Being that America's security was threatened, the nation was poised to enter the Great War.
  • Fourteen Points

    Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points to Congress with his last and most important point which lead to the formation of the League of Nations. His points called for peace-promoting ideas banning secret treaties, freedom of seas, freedom of seas, reduction of arms, end of colonization, and freedom of self-determination.
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    Isolationism

    America did not really want to get involved in WWII or any foreign affairs really. They did not get involved until Pearl Harbor.
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    The "Big Four" of the four major powers including WIlson, Clemenceau, Orlando, and George discussed the treaty of Versailles to put an end to the state of war and further prevent future wars.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    This treaty put an end to war between Germany and the Allied Powers after WWI. The conditions of the treaty were determined by the leaders of the "Big Four" nations: British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, and American President Woodrow Wilson. To wilson's dismay, Germany was given blame for the war, thus having to pay reparations.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    The LON formed as a result of the Paris Peace Conference at the close of WWI amoung several nations' governments to promote peace, prevent future wars, and protect the interests of especially minority countries. The U.S. did not in fact join which greatly weakened the LON despite this being Wilson's idea.
  • Article X of the LON

    Article X of the LON
    Article X called for members of the LON to be prepared to protect another member nation's sovereignty was being threatened.
  • Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921-22

    Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921-22
    A conference called by Harding and led by Hughes in D.C.
    The Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922 - after Japan recieved compensation, a ratio 5-5-3 naval ship ratio wsa instituted.
    A Four-Power Treaty - in place of the Angle-Japanese Alliance, this treaty bound Britain, Japan, France, and U.S. to preserve the status quo in the Pacific.
    The Nine-Power Treaty of 1922 kept the open door open in China to 9 nations who had interests in east asia.
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    The main points that were aggreed upon included that the Allied troops would evacuate the Ruhr region and a plan for Germanyto pay reparations, It eased the burdens on the German ecnomy but also made it too dependent on foreign markets.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    Kellogg-Briand Pact
    This pact was suggest by French foreign minister, Briand, to include the US into a system of Allies to protect against German aggression. U.S. Secretary of State aggreed to the renunciation of war and included other nations to sign the pact against war.
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff

    Hawley-Smoot Tariff
    This was the highest protective tariff in the United States peacetime history. This tariff angred many foreginers becaues it made the ecomonic issuses over seas even worse. The lack of foreign trade helped lead to the rise of Adolf Hitler.
  • Japanese aggression in Manchuria

    Japanese aggression in Manchuria
    The Japanese overran the province which was a violation of the Leauge of Nations and other international aggrements . The Leauge of Nations feared that if they failed to stop Japan they would "perish". To strengthen its self the Leauge had an American sit in for the first time and in the investigation commission. However when the commission found Japan unjust in their actions Japan left the Leauge. A minoroity felt that a blockade of Japan would solve the problem but Hoover refused.
  • Hoover-Stimson Doctrine of 1932

    Hoover-Stimson Doctrine of 1932
    This policy, written up by Hoover and the Secretary of State, Stimson, that US would refuse to recognize any territorial changed that occured to due to force. The US attempted to make this message clear especially to China and Japan.
  • Soviet Union

    Soviet Union
    Roosevelt formally reconizes the Soviet Union with protests form conservatives, and Catholics. Roosevelt wanted to trade with the SU and a potential ally againts Gremany and Japan
  • Montevideo Conference

    Montevideo Conference
    FDR and Secretary of State, Hull, promised Latin America that the US would be a "good neighbor" and never interevene in the region again. The "Good Neighbor Policy" condemned armed US intervention in the affairs of Central and South America. 19 states agreed to this policy.
  • London Economic Conference

    London Economic Conference
    The Conference wanted to orginize a international stragety to get rid of the global depression. FDR agreed to send a American delegation but then recalled them because he did not want the US dollar to be staiblized with other nation's currency because then he could not remove the gold standard and cause inflation. Due to the removal of the US delegation nothing was done but strengthen the trend for extreme nationalism, helping dictators come to power.
    Washington Naval Treaty in 1934
  • Tydings-McDuffie Act

    Tydings-McDuffie Act
    Gave the Phillippines freedom gradually over 12 years , in 1946 United States would vacate army bases. Navel bases were left to future decisions
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    This conference instituted the Munich Pact allowed Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in Czechoslovakia. British Prime Minister Chamberlain and French President Daladier tried to appease Hitler by negotiating some sort of deal so as to keep war at bay. In exchange, Hitler had to promise that he would not invade any more territories. Hitler promised at the time, but then he invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia 6 months later.
  • Neutrality Act of 1939

    Neutrality Act of 1939
    Although it proclaimed US neutrality in WWII, the act allowed for the US to sell weapons to European Allies on a "cash-and-carry" basis. This meant that allied nations would have to pay cash and provide transportation for any of the war materials they purchased.
  • Destroyers-for-Bases

    Destroyers-for-Bases
    Churchill asked the US for assisstance due to constant shelling and topedoing by the Germans. So, the US provided Britian with severl old US naval ships from WWI. Britain, in turn, gave the US the right to establish US military bases on British-owned islands in the Caribbean.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    Lend-Lease Act
    This act instituted by FDR allowed Britain and other allied nations to borrow US war weapons nad munition between 1941 and 1945. FDR believed that this would stimulate the economy and aid in protecting the Four Freedoms. However, this Act also ended the pretense of US neutrality in WWII.
  • Atlantic Conference

    Atlantic Conference
    Atlantic Charter
    Advocated for self'determination, no territorial changes against the will of its citizens, disarmament, and security. It also establish an organization to replace the League of Nations.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Japan suprise attacked the US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in the early morning, killing 2400 American sailors and wounding 1200. Several ships and 200 planes were destroyed as well. This prompted the US to declare war on Japan. Subsequently, 3 days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the US.
  • End of WWII Conferences

    End of WWII Conferences
    Tehran - meeting of the Big three, November 28-December1 1943 discossion about opening second front in France
    Casablanca - Jan.4-24 1943 continued planning of D-day invasion and final plans to end war
    Yalta - Feb.4-11 1945 dividing postwar europe espically Gremany
    Potsdam- July 16-Aug2 1945 how to punish Germany and defeat Japan
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    Containment and the Domino Effect

    Forgin poilcy under Truman. We will contain communism where it already exists and prevent it from spreading. The theroy that Communism will spread is called the "Domino Effect"
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    The UN is an international organization that was chartered in 1945 to replace the League of Nations. The UN brought aid to nations who dealt with severe destruction and casualties from WWII. Also, the UN provided aid to nations who under the threat of invasion of an oppressive force. The main goal of the UN is to promote and protect world peace.
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    Cold War

  • Marashall Plan

    Marashall Plan
    The United States plan to rebuild Europe after WWII. During the four years that the Marshall plan was in existance nearly $13 billion of econimic aid was given to the countries in eastern europe. The huge improvement in the ecomomies of recieving nations helped to prevent the spread of communism.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    When Stalin ordered a blocade of the city of Berlin in order to force the the Allies out of West Berlin the US and Great Britian flew supplies in to Berlin to keep the people from starving. This contiuned for 11 months untill the Blockade was lifted.
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    Massive Retaliation

    Foregin policy used by Esinhower. Called for huge build up of neuclear arms by the US as a deterant. In theroy preventing conflict because we would use neuclaer force, not just the conventional army
  • CIA Lead Coups in Gutamaula and Iran

    CIA Lead Coups in Gutamaula and Iran
    The CIA help to lead coups in both Gutamala and Iran to over throw leftist, anti American goverments and install pro US governments.
  • Geneva Accords

    Geneva Accords
    Slpit Vietnam at the 17th parallel, the north was Communist and the South was backed by the US. Free elections were supposed to be held to reunite the country but never were.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Pact was a Military alliance between the USSR and several other communist states in resopse to NATO, however the Warsaw Pact was not as strong as NATO and was ended in 1991
  • Eisenhower Doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine
    Referes to a speech given by Eisenhower to Congress about the Middle East it said that a country can ask for USmilitary aid and/or ecominic assisstance if being threatened by armed aggression to "secure and protect" the country.
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    Space Race

    The Space Race started when the Soviets launched Sputnik 1 into orbit, the first artifical satillite. The Soviets also had the first man in Space, however the US was the first to the moon.
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Led the Apollo space missions that beat the USSR to the Moon, winning the Space Race.
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    Felxible Response

    The opposite of Massive retaliation, started by JFK. Felxible Response was ment to expand the military in all branches, not just neuclaer warfare so that we could fight back against anything the Soviets attacked us with.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • Berlin Wall

    Berlin Wall
    The Soviet Union started to build the Berlin Wall to prevent citizens of Communist East Berlin moving across the border in to US occupied West Berlin. JKF went to berlin and gave a speech, Let them come to Brelin", condemming the wall. To many American's the Wall was a solidification of the "Iron Curtian"
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    After the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion Castro sought help form the Soviets. He built missiles in Cuba and pointed them at the US. Kennedy put a navel blockade around and order any ships going to or from Cuba to be searched. Two Soviet Ships bound for Cuba truned around and Kennedy negioated with the USSR to take their missiles out of Cuba if we take ours out of Turkey and promised never to try and unseat Castro again.
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    Détente

    Détente meaning Relaxation in french, was a period of time under Richard Nixon where tensions between the USSR and the US were relaxed and several treaties were signed. The détente ended in 1979 when the Soviets invaded Afganistan and President Carter boycotted the Olympics and put an embargo on grain exports to the USSR
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I

    Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I
    Talks between US and USSR led to the Anti- Billistic Missile Treaty and other negoations about armament control
  • Camp David Accords

    Camp David Accords
    President Jimmy Carter and the leaders of Isreal and Egypt meet at Camp David to negoaite peace between to two nations. The treaty which removed Isreali troops from the Sinai Pen. and made Egypt offically reconginze Isreal as a country, earned Nobel Peace Prizes for both leaders.
  • SALTII

    SALTII
    This treaty negoitated by Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev limited the number of neuclear wepons that the USSR and the US could have. While the treaty was never passed by congress both sides honered its contents
  • Mikhail Gorbachev

    Mikhail Gorbachev
    Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Primer of the USSR and tries to make caplistice reforms to save the dying USSR.
  • Reagan and Gorbachev

    Reagan and Gorbachev
    Reagan and Gorbachev agree to remove all intermidiate missiles from Europe
  • Gremany Reunited

    Gremany Reunited
    East and West Gremany are United in to a single state for the first time since 1945.
  • Fall of Soviet Union

    Fall of Soviet Union
    The United Soviet States of Russia dissolves after refoms sprial out of control and the Russian Federation is created.