Unit 7 1890-1945 - Part 1 Imperialism and WW1

  • Hawaii Sugar Plantation

    Hawaii Sugar Plantation
    The first sugar plantation was created in Koloa, Kauai. Sugarcane was introduced to Hawaii by its first inhabitants and was observed by Captain Hegwood upon arrival in the islands in 1841. Sugar quickly turned into a big business and generated rapid population growth in the islands with 337,000 people immigrating over the span of a century. The sugar grown and processed in Hawaii was shipped primarily to the United States and, in smaller quantities, globally.
  • The Purchase of Alaska

    The Purchase of Alaska
    Russia viewed the territory as economic burden because of the threat of British takeover. When the United States purchased Alaska, it ended the Russian's efforts of expanding trade. Alaska gave the United States more power in North America and less competition with one of the largest nations of the time, Russia.
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan

    Alfred Thayer Mahan
    He was naval officer whom John Keegan had claimed to be "the most important strategist in the 19th century. He wrote "The Influence of Sea Power", which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance; it stimulated the naval rave among the greatest power.
  • The Overthrow of Hawaii Monarch

    The Overthrow of Hawaii Monarch
    American settlers and Hawaiian native helped overthrow the Hawaiian monarch, Queen Liliuokalani in order to create an annexation of the islands to the United States.
  • Hawaii

    Hawaii
    American settlers aided in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarch, Queen Liliuokalani.
  • Annexation of Hawaii

    Annexation of Hawaii
    The United States wanted Hawaii for business, the Hawaiian sugar to be sold in the United States duty free. Queen Liliuokalani opposed of the idea, so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893 and William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii.
  • Spanish-American War: Remember the Maine

    Spanish-American War: Remember the Maine
    The U.S. battleship Maine sunk off the coast of Cuba on February 15th, killing 260 servicemen. It was believed that a submarine mine caused the explosion and sinking of the ship. This incident helped encourage the U.S. to go to war with the Spanish.
  • Spanish-American War: Battles

    Spanish-American War: Battles
    The primary battle fought during the Spanish American war was at Manila Bay, in the Philippines, and ended with the victory of the U.S. Twenty nine battles were fought in the Spanish American war. Eleven victories were assigned to the United States and eleven victories to the Spanish. However, no one knows who actually won in the remaining seven battles.
  • Spanish-American war: Slavery and Cruelty

    Spanish-American war: Slavery and Cruelty
    The Cubans were being treated horribly by the Spanish, which led to Cuba's desire for independence. Most Cubans were forced by the Spanish into rough slavery, having to work day and night on different plantations of tobacco or sugar, alongside African slaves, leading to the death of thousands of Cubans, especially through starvation and disease.
  • Spanish-American War: U.S. Support

    Spanish-American War: U.S. Support
    The United States decided to support Cubans for political, economics, and humanitarian reasons. Americans did not agree with how the Spanish were treating people of Cuba but they also saw Cuba as a rich and profitable country.
  • Spanish-American War: Spain Surrenders

    Spanish-American War: Spain Surrenders
    After two victories gained by the U.S. army, Spain agreed to surrender to the United States at Santiago. Theodore Roosevelt was the leader of the group known as the Rough Riders and he also led the right wing during the attack on San Juan Hill. After the victory he was assigned as the Governor of New York State.
  • Spanish-American War: Treaty of Paris

    Spanish-American War: Treaty of Paris
    Due to the Spanish-American war, the Treaty of Paris was signed on the 10th of December, 1898. As a result of the war, Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded by the Spanish to the Americans, Cuba became an independent state and the U.S. bought the Philippines for $20 million.
  • Spanish-American War: Media Involvement

    Spanish-American War: Media Involvement
    As the Spanish American war was the first conflict between nations that involved media, it is considered a turning point when it comes to the history of propaganda and the starting point of the so called yellow journalism. One of the iconic figures of war was William Randolph Hearst, who brought up the military situation of Cuba in the attention of the U.S. population.
  • Spanish-American War: Cause

    Spanish-American War: Cause
    After over 400 years of Spanish rule, Cubans were finally able to gain their independence. Struggles to become independent started at the beginning of the 19th century and came as a result of how the Spanish treated Cuba and Cubans and due to the mass executions of whomever tried to fight for Cuban freedom.
  • Philippine-American War

    Philippine-American War
    After the war, controversy over the Philippines took months to resolve. Opinion was divided between imperialists who favored annexing the Philippines and anti-imperialists who opposed it. Imperialists prevailed and the Treaty of Paris (and Philippine annexation) was ratified.
  • Big Stick Diplomacy

    Big Stick Diplomacy
    Policy popularized and named by Theodore Roosevelt that asserted U.S. domination when such dominance was considered the moral imperative.
  • Big Stick Diplomacy

    Big Stick Diplomacy
    A way of intimidating countries and making changes to meet national interests abroad. Roosevelt's strong arm approach to foreign affairs "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.", emphasizing diplomacy by force. The phrase was also used later by Roosevelt to explain his relations with domestic political leaders and his approach to such issues as the regulation of monopolies and the demands of trade unions
  • Philippine-American War

    Philippine-American War
    The people of the Philippines were outraged that their hopes for national independence from Spain were now being denied by the United States. Bands of guerrilla fighters, who were lead by Filipino nationalist leader Emilio Aguinaldo, fought in a war against US control. It took three years before the insurrection ended.
  • Dollar Diplomacy

    Dollar Diplomacy
    Dollar diplomacy of the United States during President William Howard Taft's term was a form of American foreign policy to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
  • China

    China
    While the Pacific theater was a major and well-known battleground of World War II, it may come as a surprise that Asian nations played a role in World War I. Both Japan and China actually declared war on Germany in hopes of gaining regional dominance.
  • Japan

    Japan
    Japan participated in World War I from 1914 to 1918 in an alliance with Entente Powers and played an important role in securing the sea lanes in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Imperial German Navy. The leader of Japan during that time was Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The military's presence in the Panama area dates back to before the U.S. constructed the canal, when it protected U.S. merchant trade lanes. Even during construction, the military supplied engineers, labor, and security. Fortification of the Canal Zone was only partially completed by 1913.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The Panama Canal officially opened on August 15, 1914, although the planned grand ceremony was downgraded due to the outbreak of WWI. Completed at a cost of more than $350 million, it was the most expensive construction project in U.S. history to that point. Altogether, some 3.4 million cubic meters of concrete went into building the locks, and nearly 240 million cubic yards of rock and dirt were excavated during the American construction phase. 5,600 were reported killed out of 56,000 workers
  • WWI

    WWI
    Even though the US was officially a neutral nation, its economy became closely tied to that of the Allied powers, Great Britain and France. US trade with the Allies quadrupled while its trade with Germany dwindled to the vanishing point. In addition, when the Allies found that they could not finance the purchase of everything they needed, the US government gave loans to sustain the Allies' war effort.
  • WW1

    WW1
    The majority of native-born Americans wanted the Allied powers to win the war. British war propaganda also influenced US opinion. Many influential Republicans argued for US entry into the war and clamored for preparedness. President Wilson first opposed the call but changed his policy and urged Congress to approve the expansion. Congress passed the National Defense Act, increasing the regular army force and increase in warships.
  • Mexico

    Mexico
    It was 100 years ago when Mexico almost invaded the U.S. In January 1917, German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman dispatched a coded telegram to Heinrich von Eckardt, the German ambassador to Mexico. With Germany locked in bloody stalemate with the Allies in France, and Britain’s naval blockade strangling the German economy, Kaiser Wilhelm’s government was about to make a fateful decision: declare unrestricted submarine warfare, which would allow U-boats to sink merchant ships on sight.
  • Mexico

    Mexico
    The Carranza government was de jure recognized by Germany at the beginning of 1917 and by the U.S. on August 31, 1917, the latter as a direct consequence of the Zimmerman telegram in an effort to ensure Mexican Neutrality in WWI.
  • China

    China
    From its inception, the Great War was by no means confined to the European continent; in the Far East, two rival nations, Japan and China, sought to find their own role in the great conflict.
  • WW1

    WW1
    Cause for U.S. involvement (3):
    The Russian Revolution proclaimed Russia as a Republic, removing the barrier to U.S. participation
    Cause for U.S. involvement (4):
    Renewed submarine attacks On April 2nd, President Wilson declared war on Germany and raced to mobilized the U.S.
  • WW1

    WW1
    The U.S. government used techniques of both patriotic persuasion and legal intimidation to ensure public support for the war effort.
    Espionage Act in 1917 provided for imprisonment of up to 20 years for person who either tried to incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operation of the draft. The Sedition Act of 1918 prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the U.S. government.
  • WW1

    WW1
    Cause for U.S. involvement (1):
    German military strategy decided to resume unrestricted submarine warfare and communicated this decision to the U.S. government. A few days later, President Wilson broke of U.S diplomatic relations with Germany.
    Cause for U.S. involvement (2):
    The Zimmerman Telegram was a secret offer sent from Germany to Mexico that was intercepted by the British. the telegram arouse nationalist anger of the American people.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    Shortly after the end of World War I, the Red Scare took hold in the United States. A nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, suddenly grabbed the American psyche in 1919 following a series of anarchist bombings. The nation was gripped in fear. Innocent people were jailed for expressing their views, civil liberties were ignored, and many Americans feared that a Bolshevik-style revolution was at hand.
  • WW1

    WW1
    Treaty of Versailles:
    The peace conference following WWI; involved the U.S., Great Britain, France, and Italy. Peace Terms;
    (1) Germany become disarmed and stripped of its colonies
    (2) Territories controlled by the Central Powers be taken by the Allies
    (3) Signers of the treaty would join the League of Nations. The U.S. never ratified the Treaty of Versailles, nor did it join the League of Nations
  • WW1

    WW1
    Case of Schenck vs United States:
    The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act in a case involving a man who had been imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft.. In 1919, the Supreme Court concluded that the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a "clear and present danger" to the public safety.