APUSH Period 7 (Part 1)

  • Alfred Thayer Mahan published "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"

    Alfred Thayer Mahan published "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
    Mahan argued that a strong navy was crucial to a country's ambitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power. Using the book, naval strategists were able to convince Congress to finance the construction of modern steel ships and encouraged the acquisition of overseas islands, giving the U.S. the third largest navy in 1900.
  • Hawaii; First attempt at annexation

    Hawaii; First attempt at annexation
    Expansionist coveted the islands of Hawaii and American settlers aided in overthrowing the Hawaiian monarchy. President Cleveland opposed imperialism and blocked efforts to annex the islands.
  • Gold discovery in Alaska

    Gold discovery in Alaska
    The discovery increased the money supply under the gold standard, causing inflation. Farm prices rose and factory production increased, resulting in the Dingley Tariff during McKinley's presidency.
  • Annexation of Hawaii

    Annexation of Hawaii
    After previous annexation attempts were blocked by Cleveland, the war in the Philippines gave McKinley and Congress the cause to completely annex Hawaii, causing the area to later become a U.S. territory, then an official state.
  • Beginning of Spanish-American War

    Beginning of Spanish-American War
    The war was mainly on conflict over imperialism with the U.S. and Caribbean nations. After the war official ended with the ratification of the Treaty of Paris, imperialism was still an underlying issues among nations, resulting in more conflicts in the future.
  • De Lome Letter (Cause of the S-A War)

    De Lome Letter (Cause of the S-A War)
    The leaked letter from the Spanish minister to the U.S. was highly critical of President McKinley and was considered an official Spanish insult against the U.S. national honor. The leaking of the letter created greater political tension between the Spanish and the U.S.
  • Sinking of the Maine (cause of S-A War)

    Sinking of the Maine (cause of S-A War)
    The U.S. Maine battleship was anchored in Havana, Cuba when it suddenly exploded. The Yellow Press blamed Spain for deliberately blowing up the ship and killing the U.S. citizens on board. This made the resentment toward the Spanish in the U.S. more popular and prominent.
  • McKinley's Ultimatum (causes of S-A War)

    McKinley's Ultimatum (causes of S-A War)
    McKinley demanded that Spain agree to a ceasefire in Cuba and they agreed. However, U.S. newspapers and Congress still pressed for war, causing the president to eventually issues a request to declare war.
  • First Peace Treaty for the Spanish-American War (cause of P-A War)

    First Peace Treaty for the Spanish-American War (cause of P-A War)
    The third term in the treaty allowed the United States to take control of the Philippines in order for Spain to pay their war debt. This sparked outrage throughout the islands and lead to nationalist movements to cause the Philippine-American War.
  • Treaty of Paris ratified (result of S-A War)

    Treaty of Paris ratified (result of S-A War)
    This treaty was ratified to hopefully amend some of the issues from the original peace treaty that ended the war. People of the Philippians were still upset that their fight for independence was again destroyed by the treaty, brewing even more resentment toward the U.S.
  • The Philippine-American War begins

    The Philippine-American War begins
    The conflict between the U.S. and the Philippians resulted in many human casualties, but allowed the U.S. to gain complete control over the islands after all resistance was resolved.
  • Open Door Note (China)

    Open Door Note (China)
    This communication expresses the desire to respect China's rights and ideas of fair competition in commerce. This helped further push the U.S. into the position of a world power.
  • Hawaii becomes a U.S. territory

    Hawaii becomes a U.S. territory
    This development created greater space for potential battles with Pacific nations. This also created the greater potential for Hawaii to become an official state, which later became a reality in the 1950s.
  • Results of the Election of 1900 (result of the S-A War)

    Results of the Election of 1900 (result of the S-A War)
    McKinley was reelected after the Spanish-American War because of his contribution of the new acquisition of land in the Pacific and many considered the war a victory at his hands.
  • Boxer Rebellion (China)

    Boxer Rebellion (China)
    After the Open Door Note, Chinese super-patriots started a series of violent acts against foreigners and Christians in their country. This caused a formal recognition of territorial integrity as well as their commercial integrity.
  • The Platt Amendment (result of S-A War)

    The Platt Amendment (result of S-A War)
    The amendment established Cuba as a U.S. protectorate. This resulted in many Cuban policies being subject to U.S. approval and control.
  • Roosevelt becomes President (Big Stick Diplomacy)

    Roosevelt becomes President (Big Stick Diplomacy)
    When Roosevelt entered office, he brought his new foreign policy nicknamed "big stick diplomacy" for his aggressiveness. Imperialists at the time applauded him for further pushing the U.S. to become a world power.
  • Hay-Bunau-Varillia Treaty (Panama Canal)

    Hay-Bunau-Varillia Treaty (Panama Canal)
    The treaty granted the U.S. all rights over the Canal Zone in order for Panama to keep U.S. protection. The United States then had rights and access to being building the canal.
  • Roosevelt Corollary (result of Big Stick Diplomacy)

    Roosevelt Corollary (result of Big Stick Diplomacy)
    Roosevelt used his aggressive foreign practices to aid Latin American countries in their conflicts as long as they pay their debts. This policy extended itself throughout the next few decades under future presidents.
  • Root-Takahira Agreement (Japan)

    Root-Takahira Agreement (Japan)
    The agreement both powers pledged to respect the other's territorial possessions in the Pacific to uphold the Open Door in China, allowing the two powers to maintain peace for the time being.
  • Civil War in China (Dollar Diplomacy)

    Civil War in China (Dollar Diplomacy)
    After the U.S. was left out of an agreement brought about by Dollar Diplomacy to build railroads in China, they sent marines into China where war broke out. U.S. forces had to remain there until 1933.
  • Panama Canal completed

    Panama Canal completed
    The canal gave more access for the U.S. to keep control of their new territories and a better route to move goods. The building of the canal also created a lot of resentment among Latin Americans toward the U.S.
  • Tampico Incident (Mexico)

    Tampico Incident (Mexico)
    With South American aid, the U.S. was able to draw their forces out of Mexico to avoid another war while also fighting Huerta.
  • World War 1 begins (w/o U.S.)

    World War 1 begins (w/o U.S.)
    The conflict began between Austria and their allies with Serbia and their allies. The U.S. acknowledged the conflict by staying out of the battles and becoming neutral. Their neutrality held for awhile, but ultimately the economy and foreign relations began to suffer
  • Lusitania Crisis (WWI)

    Lusitania Crisis (WWI)
    German torpedoes hit and sank a British passenger liner, killing most of the passengers. With 28 of the passengers being American, the United States position of neutrality was challenged for the first time. President Wilson sent a message to Germany, saying they would be help accountable if they kept sinking unmarked ships, and many saw the message as too warlike.
  • Expeditionary Force (Mexico)

    Expeditionary Force (Mexico)
    The U.S. sent troops to the Mexican boarder in order to capture Villa. The failed to capture him and with World War I developing, the U.S. drew their troops out of Mexico.
  • Wilson asks Congress for War against Germany (WWI)

    Wilson asks Congress for War against Germany (WWI)
    Germany had declared a state of unrestricted submarine warfare in hopes to win the war before the U.S. could enter. The declaration cause Wilson to propose entrance in the war and ended diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • Zimmerman Telegram (WWI)

    Zimmerman Telegram (WWI)
    The telegram was intercepted by the U.S. where Germany proposed that Mexico ally with them. This angered nationalists in the U.S. and was one of the immediate causes for the U.S. entering the war.
  • Renewed Submarine Attacks (WWI)

    Renewed Submarine Attacks (WWI)
    Germany sank 5 U.S. merchant ships at the beginning of March. This was the last straw for the U.S. and they formally entered the war soon after.
  • Selective Service Act (WWI effect)

    Selective Service Act (WWI effect)
    U.S. forces were thinning quickly during the war, so this act was enacted to draft men into the military to aid in the fight. 2.8 million ended up being drafted, half going to the western front.
  • Sedation Act (WWI)

    Sedation Act (WWI)
    This act prohibited anyone from making disloyal
    or abusive remarks about the U.S. government in order to protect the country from rebellion. The act caused a lot of socialist to be jailed.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    A fear of communism began to arise in the U.S. after WW1, resulting in xenophobia that resulted in restrictions on immigration in the 1920s.