APUSH Period 7 - Part 1

By Nyota
  • The Purchase of Alaska (Alaska)

    The Purchase of Alaska (Alaska)
    “Russia and Great Britain both claimed the vast territory of Alaska.” Russia had to sell the territory “because of the threat of a British takeover.” “Seeking buyers, Russia found Seward to be an enthusiastic champion of the idea of the United States purchasing Alaska. As result of Seward's lobbying, and also in appreciation of Russian support during the Civil War, Congress in 1867 agreed to buy Alaska for $7.2 million.”
  • Naval Power (Alfred Thayer Mahan)

    Naval Power (Alfred Thayer Mahan)
    "U.S. Navy Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote an im-
    portant book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890), in which he argued that a strong navy was crucial to a country's ambitions of securing foreign markets and becoming a world power." "U.S. naval strategists persuaded Congress to finance construction of modern steel ships and encouraged acquisition of overseas islands that were desired as coaling and supply stations so that the new fleet could project its sea power around the world.
  • Yellow Press (Spanish-American War)

    Yellow Press (Spanish-American War)
    "Actively promoting war fever in the United States was yellow journalism, sensationalistic reporting that featured bold and lurid headlines of crime, disaster, and scandal. Two most important writers were Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. Printed false accounts of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. Believing what they read daily in their newspapers, many Americans urged Congress and the president to intervene in Cuba for humanitarian reasons and put a stop to the atrocities and suffering."
  • Overthrow of Hawaiian monarchy (Hawaii)

    Overthrow of Hawaiian monarchy (Hawaii)
    "Expansionists coveted the islands and, in 1893, American settlers aided in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarch, Queen Liliuokalani."
  • Cuban Revolt (Spanish-American War)

    Cuban Revolt (Spanish-American War)
    "Through sabotage and laying waste to Cuban plantations, they hoped to either force Spain's withdrawal or pull in the United States as an ally. Spain sent autocratic General Valeriano Weyler and over 100,000 troops to crush the revolt. Weyler forced civilians into armed camps, where tens of thousands died of starvation and disease, and gained him the title of "The Butcher" in the American press."
  • De Lome Letter (Spanish-American War)

    De Lome Letter (Spanish-American War)
    "a Spanish diplomat's letter that was leaked to the press and printed on the front page of Hearst's Journal. Written by the Spanish minister to the United States, Dupuy de Lome, the letter was highly critical of President McKinley. Many considered it an official Spanish insult against the U.S. national honor."
  • Sinking of the Maine (Spanish-American War)

    Sinking of the Maine (Spanish-American War)
    "the U.S. battleship Maine was at anchor in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, when it suddenly exploded, killing 260 Americans on board. The yellow press accused Spain of deliberately blowing up the ship, even though experts later concluded that the explosion was probably an accident."
  • McKinley's War Message (Spanish-American War)

    McKinley's War Message (Spanish-American War)
    After the sinking of the Maine, President McKinley issued an ultimatum to Spain demanding that it agree to a ceasefire in Cuba. Spain agreed, but many wanted to go to war.
    "He offered four reasons for the United States to intervene in the Cuban revolution on behalf of the rebels"
  • Teller Amendment (Spanish-American War)

    Teller Amendment (Spanish-American War)
    "Responding to the president's message, Congress
    passed a joint resolution on April 20 authorizing war. Part of the resolution, the Teller Amendment, declared that the United States had no intention of taking political control of Cuba and that, once peace was restored to the island, the Cuban people would control their own government."
  • Invasion of Cuba (Spanish-American War)

    Invasion of Cuba (Spanish-American War)
    "More than 5,000 American soldiers died of malaria, typhoid,
    and dysentery, while fewer than 500 died in battle" after the force landed in Cuba. "Attacks by both American and Cuban forces succeeded in defeating the much larger but poorly led Spanish army. The "taking of San Juan Hill was the success of the U.S. Navy in destroying the Spanish fleet at Santiago Bay on July 3. Without a navy, Spain realized that it couldn't continue fighting, and in early August 1898 asked for U.S. terms of peace."
  • Annexation of Hawaii (Hawaii)

    Annexation of Hawaii (Hawaii)
    After overthrowing the Hawaiian monarch, President Cleveland opposed imperialism and blocked Republican efforts to annex Hawaii. Then the outbreak of war in the Philippines gave Congress and President McKinley the pretext to complete annexation in July 1898."
  • Commodore George Dewey arrives to Philippines (Philippine-American War)

    Commodore George Dewey arrives to Philippines (Philippine-American War)
    "Anticipating war and recognizing the strategic value of Spain's territories in the Pacific, Roosevelt had ordered a fleet commanded by Commodore George Dewey to the Philippines. This large group of islands had been under Spanish control.
  • War in Philippines (Philippine-American War)

    War in Philippines (Philippine-American War)
    "Commodore Dewey's fleet fired on Spanish ships in Manila Bay. The Spanish fleet was soon pounded into submission by U.S. naval guns. The fight on land took longer. Allied with Filipino rebels, U.S. troops captured the city of Manila on August 13."
  • Boxer Rebellion (China)

    Boxer Rebellion (China)
    "nationalism and xenophobia (hatred and fear of foreigners) were on the rise in China. a secret society of Chinese nationalists-the Society of Harmonious Fists, or Boxers-attacked foreign settlements and murdered dozens of Christian missionaries. To protect American lives and property, U.S. troops participated in an international force that marched into Peking (Beijing) and quickly crushed the rebellion of the Boxers."
  • Hawaii becomes a territory of US (Hawaii)

    Hawaii becomes a territory of US (Hawaii)
    "The Hawaiian islands became a territory of the United
    States in 1900 and the fiftieth state in the Union in August 1959."
  • Hay's Second Round of Notes (China)

    Hay's Second Round of Notes (China)
    "Hay feared that the expeditionary force in China might attempt to occupy the country and destroy its independence. he wrote a second note to the imperialistic powers stating U.S. commitment to (1) preserve China's territorial integrity as well as (2) safeguard "equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire." Hay's first and second notes set U.S. policy on China not only for the administrations of McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt but also for future presidents."
  • The Panama Canal (Big Stick Diplomacy)

    The Panama Canal (Big Stick Diplomacy)
    "United States desired a canal through Central America to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. However, building a canal would be difficult. Before the United States could try to build a canal, it needed to negotiate an agreement with the British to cancel an earlier treaty of 1850 in which any canal in Central America was to be under joint British-U.S. control. This agreement, called the Hay-Pauncefote
    Treaty, was signed in 1901.
  • Insular Cases (Spanish-American War)

    Insular Cases (Spanish-American War)
    "One question concerned the constitutional rights of Philippine people: did the provisions of the U.S. Constitution apply to whatever territories fell under U.S. control, including Philippines and Puerto Rico? The issue was resolved in favor of imperialists in a series of Supreme Court cases, insular cases. Court ruled that constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions and that the power to decide whether or not to grant such rights belonged to Congress.
  • Revolution in Panama (Panama Canal)

    Revolution in Panama (Panama Canal)
    Columbia controlled Panama, and they refused to allow US to build a canal through their territory because Columbia wanted more money and sovereignty over the canal. Roosevelt orchestrated a revolt for Panama's independence in 1903, and the revolt succeeded.
  • Building the Canal (Panama Canal)

    Building the Canal (Panama Canal)
    Began in 1904 and was completed in 1914. Many workers died, and the canal was completed because of the skills of two Army colonels-George Goethals, the chief engineer of the canal, and Dr. William Gorgas, whose efforts eliminated the mosquitoes that spread deadly yellow fever.
  • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (Big Stick Diplomacy)

    The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (Big Stick Diplomacy)
    "Latin American nations that were in deep financial trouble and could not pay their debts to European creditors," so some nations used force. "Roosevelt declared that the United States would intervene instead, whenever necessary." "It meant that the US would send gunboats to a Latin American country that was delinquent in paying its debts. U.S. sailors and marines would then occupy the country's major ports to manage the collection of customs taxes until European debts were satisfied."
  • Russo-Japanese War (Japan)

    Russo-Japanese War (Japan)
    "Imperialist rivalry between Russia and Japan led to war in 1904, a war Japan was winning. To end the conflict, Roosevelt arranged a diplomatic conference between the two foes at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1905. Although both Japan and Russia agreed to the Treaty of Portsmouth, Japanese nationalists blamed the United States for not giving their country all that they believed they deserved from Russia.
  • Railroads in China (Dollar Diplomacy)

    Railroads in China (Dollar Diplomacy)
    Taft wanted US bankers to be included in a British, French, and German plan to invest in railroads in China, and Taft succeeded in 1911. In the northern province of Manchuria, however, the United States was not included in the agreement between Russia and Japan to build railroads there. In direct defiance of U.S.'s Open Door policy, Russia and Japan agreed to treat Manchuria as a jointly held sphere of influence.
  • Tampico Incident (Mexico)

    Tampico Incident (Mexico)
    "To aid revolutionaries fighting Huerta, Wilson called an embargo against the Mexican government and sent a fleet to blockade the port of Vera Cruz." "Several U.S. sailors went ashore at Tampico where they were arrested by Mexican authorities. They were soon released. However, Huerta didn't apologize, as demanded by U.S. naval officer. Wilson retaliated by ordering U.S. Navy to occupy Veracruz. War seemed imminent. Dispute was solved by South America's ABC powers-Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
  • Pancho Villa and the U.S. Expeditionary Force (Mexico)

    Pancho Villa and the U.S. Expeditionary Force (Mexico)
    “Huerta fell from power in 1914. He was replaced by more democratic regime led by Venustiano Carranza. Almost immediately, the new government was challenged by loyal to Villa. Villa led raids across the U.S.-Mexican border and murdered several people in Texas and New Mexico.” In 1916, President Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing and an "expeditionary force" to pursue Villa into northern Mexico. They failed to capture Villa. President Carranza protested the American presence in Mexico."
  • Zimmermann Telegram (WWI)

    Zimmermann Telegram (WWI)
    Germany made Mexico a secret offer. "a telegram to Mexico from the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, proposed that Mexico ally itself with Germany in return for Germany's pledge to help Mexico recover lost territories: Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona." "convinced Wilson that Germany fully expected a war
    with the United States."
  • Russian Revolution (WWI)

    Russian Revolution (WWI)
    "Wilson wanted the war to be fought for a worthy purpose: the triumph of democracy. It bothered him that one of the Allies was Russia, a nation governed by an autocratic czar. This barrier to U.S. participation was suddenly removed on March 15, when Russian revolutionaries overthrew the czar's government and proclaimed a republic."
  • Renewed Submarine Attacks (WWI)

    Renewed Submarine Attacks (WWI)
    "German submarines sank five unarmed U.S. merchant ships. Wilson was ready for war."
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts (WWI)

    Espionage and Sedition Acts (WWI)
    "The Espionage Act (1917) provided for imprisonment of up to 20 years for persons who either tried to incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operation of the draft. The Sedition
    Act (1918) went much further by prohibiting anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks about the U.S. government.
  • The Fourteen Points (WWI)

    The Fourteen Points (WWI)
    "Fourteen Points related to specific territorial ques-
    tions: for example, Germany had to return the regions of Alsace and Lorraine to France, and to evacuate Belgium in the west and Romania and Serbia in the east."
  • Palmer Raids (Red Scare)

    Palmer Raids (Red Scare)
    "A series of unexplained bombings caused Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to establish a special office under J. Edgar Hoover to gather information on radicals. Palmer also ordered mass arrests of anarchists, socialists, and labor agitators. Palmer warned of huge riots on May Day, 1920, but they never took place. His loss of credibility, coupled with rising concerns about civil liberties, caused the hysteria to recede."
  • The Treaty of Versailles (WWI)

    The Treaty of Versailles (WWI)
    "Germany was disarmed/ stripped of its colonies in Asia and Africa." "Germany admired guilt of the war, accepted French occupation of
    the Rhineland for 15 years, and pay a huge sum of money to Great Britain and France." "territories once controlled
    by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia were taken by the Allies;
    independence was granted to some; and some new nations were established." "Signers of the treaty would join an international peacekeeping organization, the League of Nations.
  • Case of Schenck v. United States (WWI)

    Case of Schenck v. United States (WWI)
    "The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act in a case involving a man who had been imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft. In 19 I 9, Justice Oliver
    Wendell Holmes concluded that the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a "clear and present danger" to the public safety."