William H. Seward lobbied and convinced Congress to purchase Alaska for $7.2 million. Russia wanted America to have it to avoid British takeover.
Alfred Thayer Mahan and the Navy
Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, which helped persuade Congress into financing the construction of modern steel ships/acquiring foreign land (Samoa).
Hawaii: Overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani
American settlers and expansionists overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, removing monarchy in Hawaii.
Spanish-American War: Cuban Revolt
Cuban nationalists tried to overthrow Spanish rule for the third time in 1895. Spain sent autocratic Gen. Valeriano Weyler and 100,000 to crush the revolt, causing tens of thousands of civilians to die.
Spanish-American War: Yellow Press
Led by Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst's sensationalists machinations, it promoted U.S. war fever through publicizing false accounts of Cuban life -- atrocities, sabotage, etc.
Spanish-American War: De Lome Letter
Spanish Minister Dupuy de Lome spoke critically of President McKinley. It caused U.S. outraged.
Spanish-American War: Sinking of the Maine
U.S. battleship Maine exploded, killing 260 Americans on board. The yellow press accused Spain of deliberately blowing it up.
Spanish-American War: McKinley's War Message
Pres. McKinley wanted Spain to ceasefire in Cuba to avoid war, but war hawk pressure caused him to send a war message to Congress.
Spanish-American War: Teller Amendment
America promised not to take control of Cuba.
Philippine-American War: Treaty of Paris
U.S. gained control of the Philippines after the Treaty of Paris. Filipinos fought back.
Spanish-American War: Santiago Bay
Spain realized that it could not continue fighting, so they asked for U.S. terms of peace.
Hawaii: Philippine-American War
Gave Congress and Pres. McKinley the pretext to complete annexation.
Philippine-American War: Commodore George Dewey
Fired on Spanish ships in Manila Bay. America captured the city of Manila after Filipino rebels assisted them.
Hawaii: Hawaii becomes U.S. territory
Hawaii became a territory and eventually the 50th state in the Union in 1959.
China: Boxer Rebellion
Xenophobic Chinese nationalists (the Society of Harmonious Fist) murdered dozens of Christian missionaries. U.S. troops squashed the rebellion, and China was forced to pay for damages.
China: Hay's Second Round of Notes
Preserved China's territorial integrity as well as safeguarded equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese empire.
Big Stick Diplomacy: Assassination of McKinley
Soft-spoken Republican Vice Pres. Theodore Roosevelt took office after McKinley was killed.
Big Stick Diplomacy: Foreign policy
Attempted to build the reputation of the U.S. as a foreign power.
Panama Canal: Revolution in Panama
Roosevelt orchestrated a revolt for Panama's independence against Columbia so that America could gain passageway for the construction of the canal.
Panama Canal: Building the Canal
Thousands of lives were lost building it, and America payed Columbia $25 million for its loss of Panama in 1921.
Japan: "Gentlemen's Agreement"
Japan secretly agreed to restrict the emigration of Japanese workers to the U.S., while Roosevelt persuaded Cali. to repeal its discriminatory laws (segregated schools).
William Howard Taft depended on investors' dollars for expansionism.
Mexico: Tampico Incident
Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta ordered Mexican authorities to arrest U.S. sailors at Tampico. War nearly ensued.
Mexico: Pancho Villa and the U.S. Expeditionary Force
Pancho Villa led rebels against Carranza, democratic ruler who replaced Huerta. The U.S. failed to capture Villa. This strengthened the possibility of the U.S. entering World War l.
World War One: Declaration for War
Pres. Wilson declared war against Germany.
World War l: Unrestricted Submarine Welfare
Germany believed that by cutting off the supplies to the Allies, they could win the war before America could react. Germany resumed unrestricted submarine welfare. This caused America to end diplomatic relations.
World War One: Zimmerman Telegram
German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman promised Mexico that if they allied with Germany, Germany would help Mexico recover lost territories. Aroused nationalistic sentiments.
World War One: Russian Revolution
Russian revolutionaries overthrew the czar's government and proclaimed a republic. Aroused war sentiments.
World War One: Espionage and Sedition Acts
Granted up to 20 years imprisonment to persons trying to incite rebellion or obstruct the draft, and also prohibited anyone from making disloyal or abusive remarks about the government.
World War One: Selective Service Act
All men between 21 and 30 were required to register for possible induction into the military.
World War One: African Americans
400,000 blacks served in WWl but in segregated units.
The Red Scare
Caused by the Communist takeover in Russia. Fueled xenophobia, which led to restrictions on immigration in the 1920s.