Timeline of Jews in Netherlands

  • Jan 1, 1321

    Jewish Expulsion of France

    Many Jews reportedly went to the Netherlands where they settled in Gelderland which was reported in 1325.
  • Jan 1, 1340

    Jews are accused of spreading the Balck Plague

    Jews are accused of spreading the Balck Plague
    This causes the Jews to be subject to vioolence and persecution in the Neatherlands 350 years before the Holocaust
  • Jan 1, 1349

    Duke of Guelders Authorized by Emperor Louis IV as the Holy Roman Empire of Germany to Have Jews in his land

    Jews were protected by law, granted services, and paid taxes. jews were allowed to be doctors and hold prominent positions in the government.
  • Jan 1, 1444

    Jewish Expulsion from Utrecht

    Jewish emigration to Maarssen, where they were tolerated.
    They were not allowed back into the cuty untill 1789, the start of the French revoloition. At this time, jewsih were allowed into Zeeland, Duke of Bavaria
  • Jan 1, 1471

    Marriage of Mary of Burgendy to Archduke Mazimilian, son of Emperor Frederick III

    Netherlands are united to Austria.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Spanish Inquisition

    Spanish Inquisition
    Many Jews fled to the Neatherlands secretly. 100 years later, the community was discovered and the leaders were arrested. 5 years later, a new jewish community arose in Amsterdam and was founded.
  • Jan 1, 1522

    Charles V issues a Proclimation

    This proclimation was against Christians who were suspected not being devout and prosecuting Jews who had not been baptized in Gelderland and Utrecht. (These edicts occur again in 1545 and 1549).
  • Jan 1, 1571

    Duke of Alba holdds all jews living in tthis duchy should be evaluated.

    This Jjeporidized the position of jees in the Neatherlands.
  • Jan 1, 1581

    Act of Abjuration

    This act was issued by the United Provences denounced Phillip II of Spain and therefore the Jews in Spain and Portugal flee to Holland.
  • Wave of Jewish immigration to Amsterdam, Holland

    Jews flee to the Netherlands after trying to go to Middelburg (Zeeland, provence in Holland) and Haarlem (northern Half of Holland. At this point in time, the Jews served as a powerful minority within th population. their skill set was unique and special and served as important contributers to the economy. They supported the House of Orange (a political party). The freedom that the Jews posesed in Amsterdam allowed them to manage and foster foreign relations with Morocco.
  • Issues with the Prodestand Church

    The prodestant Church was furious that the Jews were not persecuted for the murder of Jesus. new laws left the decisions regarding Jews to the hands of the individual city leaders.
    Amsterdam- allowed Jews, but nto as citizens
  • First Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Amsterdam

    First Ashkenazi Jews arrive in Amsterdam
    -establish community in 1635
    -come from germany By this time, Jews were able to govern themselves (Beit Din), organize yeshivot, and appointd their own communal leaders.
  • Jewish Involvement int eh Dutch West Indies Company

    In 1621, Jews were members of the Dutch West Indies Company. Therefore, the jews made important connectiosn to countries in South America such as Brazil.
  • Jewish Jobs in 1642 in Holland

    Jews were admitted to Universities and became doctors. Yet, they were nto allowed to practice law. Jews were not allowed into trade guilds, even though they had great foreign relations with many countries except in the fields of religious printing, bookselling, production of meat,gorceries, or drugs. Becuase of their usefullness allows the Jews to spread all over Holland.
  • Jewish immigration to Brazil

    Becuase of strong ties with Brazil, 600 Jews from Netherlands immigrate there.
  • Jewish Sugar Refinery Established in Holland

  • Benedictus de Spinoza (Baruch Spinoza)

    Excommunicated from Holland in 1656 after expressing hi ideas concerning the nature of God in his book, Ethics.
  • William III, IV, and V Protects Jews

    Allows jews to attain prosperity through diamond-cutting and retail trading. William V protects the jews even through there were various problems in the country. On March 8, 1766, synagauges praise William V. June 3, 1768 William V bvisits German and Portugese synagauges and attends marriages of [rominetn Jewish Families.
  • National Convention in Holland

    This convention proclaims, "No Jew shall be excluded from rights or advantages which are asssociated with citizenship in the Batavian Republic, and which he may desire to enjoy". At this convention:
    1. Moses moresco- appointed member of Municipality at Amsterdam
    2. Expelled Prince of Orange- Upset Jacob Moses Lowestamm because they had a very close relationship with them. Therefore, the population of Jews were spit in half. 1/2 for Emancipation, 1/2 against.
  • Period: to

    Amsterdam is known as "Jersalem of the West"

    According to an article published in The Journal (from Amsterdam) they want to retain the title from pre-WWII as "Jerusalem of the West". "Van der Laan, the current mayor gave a long and wide-ranging interview to the offical magazine of RCE, called Kehilot... When the mayor was asked abotu the Jewish Community in Amsterdam, Van der Laan declared that it was a "steady well of inspiration".
  • Period: to

    Louis Bonaparte's Rule

    -Watned to give Jews their right of emncipation, but the length of his reign (4 years) disallowed his ultimate planns.
    -Abolished use of "Oath More Judaico"- Jews had to take this additional oath to make sure that the Jews were telling the truth. It was humiliating.
    - Include the Jews in
  • William VI arrives in Neatherlands and is Crowned King

    • Crowned king Dec 11th
  • - Cheif Rabbi Lehmans of The Haugue organized a special thanksgiving service

    Following this, jews agree to fight at Waterloo, 35 officers die
  • Population of Jews in 1900

    Population of Jews in 1900
    Amsterdam has 51,000 Jews
    The Hague has 5,754
    Rotterdam 10,000
    Grongien 2,400
    Arhem 1,224 2% of Neatherlands pop is Jews
  • Population in the Neatherlands- 140,000 Dutch Jews

    25,000 of them were German Refugees
  • Period: to

    34,000 Jewish Refugees enter the Neatherlands to Escape Nazi, Germany.

    -Open door policy for immigration
    -At this time Jews were 1.6% of the population
    -Refugees came from Germany, Austria, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
  • Nazi Count of Jewish Population

    Racially Dutch (Askenazi)Jews: 121,000
    Members of Sephardic Portuguese-Israelite community: 4,300
    Two Jewish grandparents: 19,000, this number could have been incorrect as many of them could have possibly had 3 Jewish grandparents, but did not want to be classified as full Jews
    One Jewish grandparent: 6,000
    Jews who are members of the Catholic Church- 2,500
  • Concentration of Jews starts in the city of Zaandam

    -Sent to Westbork Concentration Camp
  • Holland is "Judenrein" (clean of Jews)

    • Nazi deportation concludes after 12,296 were depored and many thousands concentrated in Holland. -Many sent to Aushwitz and Sobibor in 1943
  • Population: 30,000 Jews in the Neatherlands

    -205 of the prewar popoulatin
    -1/3 are mixed marriages
    -The emigration fromt eh neatherlands to Palistine surpassed any other country
  • Restoration of Middleburg Synagague Completed

  • Holland's prime minister Jan Peter Balkende apologizes for collaboration with the Nazis

    Holland's prime minister Jan Peter Balkende apologizes for collaboration with the Nazis