This period is marked with the emergence of major of Jewish philosophy and thought. The Haskallah movement was growing simultaneously to the secular enlightenment. Meanwhile rabbinic authority declined.
First Jewish Immigrants to America
A group of twenty-three Sephardic Jews fleeing the Island of Recife on board the Saint Catherine arrived in New Amsterdam. The first wave of Jewish immigrants to settle in America were the Spanish Portugese between c. 1654-1720.
Jewish American Experience
As Jews increasingly immigrated to America, they faced different challenges and had to adapt ot a new lifestyle.
Early Modern Period
This period includes the scientific Revolution and the enlightenment. It roughly begins when Baruch Spinoza is excommunicated and ends with the excomunnicaiton of Hassidim.
Baruch Spinoza is put into Cherem
Baruch Spinoza was put into Cherem by the Rabbis because their authority was weakening and cherem was all the power they had. He was the first person not to return to the Rabbis begging for forgiveness. When other Jews began to think like Baruch Spinoza, Rabbinic Authority declined even further.
With the enlightenment spreading throughtout Europe, the Haskallah emerges. The maskilim are followers of the haskallah/Jewish enlightenment. This movement supports integrating enlightenment values into Judaism and assimilating into secular culture.
Hassidism is Established
The Baal Shem Tov founded the Hassidic movement. This sect of Judaism provided a spiritually rich lifestyle and rebuilt a sense of community around the Rebbe for those Jews who only had tradition to connect them to Judaism.
Mitnagdim Movement Spreads
The Mitnagdim were formed as a conservative reaction to the Hasidic movemnt. These rabbinical opponents, led by the Vilan Gaon, emphasized learning torah and crtiicized the hassidim for their different spiritual practices
Excommunication of Hassidim
The Rabbis of Vilna excommunicated the Hassidim becuae they disagreed with their spiritual singing and dancing practices.
Moses Mendelsssohn was an important figure in the Haskallah movement. Hewas the first to blend Orthodox Judaism with secular culture.
American Jews Emancipated
America is the first counrty in the world to emancipate the Jews. Although there were not many jews at the time, emancapation really makes a difference within the next 100 years when more Jews arrive.
The French revolution occuring in c.1789-1799 resulted in dramatic changes in the freedom of European Jews.
Jewish Political Emancapation
Following enlightenment values, many countries granted Jews there righs as citizens. Almost all Jews in Europe were emancipated by 1871.
French Jews emancipted
Napolean called for a meeting of the grand Sanhedrin which had not convened in 1800 years.
Hamburg Temple, in Germany, was the Temple of the Reform movement. Refrom movement viewed Judaism as just a religion, not a community
Second Wave of Jewish Immigration to America
Around 144,000 German Jews immigrated to America between c. 1830-1860.
Rav Hirsch responds to the Refrom movement with Orthodoxyin his book The Nineteen Letters of Ben Uziel. He believed that there should be a balance of secular culture and religion.
Third Wave of Jewish Immigration to America
Over 3.4 million East European Jews immigrated to America between c.1880-1924.
Pale of Settlement
Even though been around sinnce the late 18th century, condidtions became worse because of progroms.
Bilu were the first Jews to make aliyah.
Birth of Zionism
Different events throughout Jeiwsh History form different attitudes toward zionism/the Jewish right to self determination. Political, religious, labor, and cultural Zionism are all developed through this era.
This case influences Thedore Herzl to come up with the idea of Political Zionism as a solution to anti-semitism
Herzl Wrote The Jewish State
Herzl's book The Jewish State introduced his political Zionistic ideas to the world.
First Zionist Congress
The First Zionist Congress took place from August 29 to August 31, 1897. It later became the World Zionist Organazation.
Emma Lazarus's Poem is Placed on Statue of Liberty
Emma Lazarus, a Jewish poet whose famous poem was inscribed in the Statue of Liberty Pedestal.
The Kishinev progrom took place in Russia Spril 6-7, 1903. Bialek's poem on the progrom made it famous and helped spark political zionism.
The fsecond aliyah was mainly Jews fleeing from czarist Russian in c.1904-1914.
AD Gordon believed in Labor Zionism. He believed that the attitude of Jews needed to change from passive to being in charge of themselves. It was important to AD Gordon that Jews start working for their land and their right to self determination.
Arthur Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, wrote a letter to Lionel Rothschild guaranteeing the establishment of the state of Palestine as a Jewish homeland
After the Holocaust, displaced persons camps, operating from 1945-1952, become a "lab test" for Jewish History.
Israel becomes a state
Conservative Movement Prospered
The conservative movement was a conservative reacrtion to the reform movement. It disposed of preserve existiong condidtions, included everyone, and believed in changing and dealing with modernity.