Jewish History in England: 1100-1200

Timeline created by engl214group1
In History
  • Jan 1, 1100

    Henry I's Charter

    Henry I's Charter
    (Skipp)
    1100-1135.
    Henry I approved a charter for Jews which gave them freer settlement in England, seeing it as a method to escalate revenues (Birnbaum). This was important because it gave Jewish people more freedom and rights than they had previously had. Jewish people were often given the short end of the stick and this was in instance where they were granted a pass to live freer. They were on the break of being treated equal it seemed.
  • Jan 1, 1100

    William the Conqueror

    William the Conqueror
    This did not happen on the first of January. William the Conqueror offered Jews from all over Europe Sanctuary in England. Multiple Jews came in from many of the other countries in Europe (Jewish Encyclopedia). These Jews were promised sanctuary, and this event was the first time that Jews really started to live in England.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 1100
    to
    Dec 31, 1200

    Jewish History in England from 1100-1200

  • Jan 1, 1135

    Stephen's Royal Decree

    Stephen's Royal Decree
    (Woody)
    1135-1154.
    During King Stephen’s reign there was a civil war between Henry I's daughter and her cousin Stephen. The Jews suffered during the war. Stephen freed Christians from their debts to Jews in return for the payment of part of the debt to the king (Birnbaum). This was critical to the social situation of Jewish people because it really got the ball rolling on the poor treatment of Jewish people in the world. They were cheated out of money by the king and everyone in the country.
  • Jan 1, 1141

    Civil War Between Matilda and Stephen

    Civil War Between Matilda and Stephen
    During the civil war Jews were forced to pay ransom to both sides of the civil war. They didn't get to pick a side to support, they were forced to help both sides (Jewish History). This also hurt them because now both sides hated them even more for helping out the other side. They got treated poorly from both side of the war because they were forced to pay both sides.
  • Jan 1, 1141

    Matilda's escape from Oxford Castle

    Matilda's escape from Oxford Castle
    When Matilda was under attack in Oxford Castle, she turned to the Jews for money before escaping. After that, Oxford fell to Stephen who was enraged at his cousin and he demanded money from the Oxford Jews. When the Jews tried to explain that Matilda had already taken their money, he burned down a Jewish house and threatened to burn more in if he didn't get the money (Oxford jewish Heritage).
  • Mar 22, 1144

    First Ritual Murder Libel

    First Ritual Murder Libel
    On this date a 12 year old boy was found dead. The Christians blamed the Jews for his death, stating they killed him in a ritual fashion ( Popular Preaching in Medieval Times). This very first murder libel against the Jews started the precident for the coming 'blood libels' that they would be plagued with. These were the lies that were the Jews killed Christians to get there blood for baking something for passover called Matzot.
  • Mar 25, 1144

    Accussing the Jewish

    Accussing the Jewish
    A 12 year old boy was found dead and Jews were accused of killing him in a mock crucifixion (Jewish History).
  • Jan 1, 1145

    Second Crusade

    Second Crusade
    (Roffey)
    1145-1147
    Before the Second Crusade, a monk named Radulph declared that the Jews should be slain as the enemies of the Christian religion. It was protested against.The Jews were expelled. A letter was addressed to the Christians, protesting against the persecution of the Jews. 23 people were killed (Neubauer and Stern). This set the grounds for Jewish hatred through the rest of history because people tried to go against the people in power. This grew more resentment towards the Jews.
  • Jan 1, 1154

    King Henry's Treatment of Jewish People

    King Henry's Treatment of Jewish People
    (JAFI's Israel)
    1154-1184.
    Henry oppressed and protected the Jews (Birnbaum). The way King Henry treated the Jewish people was very similar to the way everyone else in England treated them. This was very important to the development of their treatment throughout history because it paved the path for their poor treatment because the leader of the country set the example.
  • Jan 1, 1168

    Jews Relocation

    Jews Relocation
    (bgblogging)
    Frederick Barbarossa complained to King Henry II about Jews who left and were residing in England. Henry forced the richer Jews to return to Germany & the rest to pay him 5000 marks in order to remain in England (Birnbaum). This effected the social situation of Jewish people in England because it added to their growing mistreatment generally and their mistreatment as it related to money issues. From this point, they were forced to give up money to the country for various reasons.
  • Jan 1, 1181

    Dispute between William and Samson

    Dispute between William and Samson
    This did not happen on the first of January. The Abbot William the Sacristan and his friend Samson got into an arguement. The Jews chose the side of Samson, who, unfortunately for the Jews, became Abbot the next year (Jewish History). Samson declared that the Jews were to be placed under his authority rather than the kings. They refused and were exiled from the Country. Just because they chose the wrong side of a dispute they were exiled from the country.
  • Jan 1, 1181

    Assize of Arms

    Assize of Arms
    (Martelli)
    King Henry II enacted the "Assize of Arms", which ordered all weapons that Jewish people had be confiscated. Henry's reasoning was that Jews were supposedly protected by the King and they would not have any reason for owning arms. The weapons were turned over to the King's forces (Birnbaum). This effected the Jews negatively. There was little they could do to protect themselves then and in later years. It left them defenseless.
  • Jan 1, 1186

    Saladin Tax

    Saladin Tax
    (401(K) 2012)
    Jews were taxed 10,000 marks or 25% of their income and personal property worth, while Christians were taxed 10% of their property alone. This was called the Saladin tax (Birnbaum). This effected the social situation of Jewish people in England because it took away their money unfairly. Jews were taxed heavier than Christians which placed them in a category less respected by other English people. The Saladin Tax was the dehumanized Jews in a way by treating them as lesser people.
  • Jan 1, 1189

    The Third Crusade

    The Third Crusade
    This was not on the First of January. During the Third Crusade the Jewish population in England were taxed more heavily than anyone else in the Country. The Jewish community consisted of less than .25% of the population during this time, yet they contributed more than 8% of the money for the war. Even though they helped this much, they were still attacked, and their houses burned after the war ( The Virtual Jewish World United Kingdom).
  • Jul 6, 1189

    Death of Henry the Second

    Death of Henry the Second
    Out of all the kings in this time period King Henry the Second was the nicest to the Jews. During his rule life for the Jews wasn't very bad. He didn't have any laws that directly oppressed them becuase they were Jewish. But after his death in 1189 his son, King Richard, took the throne, and life for jews in England got harder to endure (Historical Background and Glossary of Termsin connection with the Medieval (pre-1290) Jewish Communities of England & Wales).
  • Sep 3, 1189

    Coronation of Richard the Lionhearted

    Coronation of Richard the Lionhearted
    Richard the Lionhearted favored the Jews but because Thomas a Beckett hated the Jews, Richard banned them and women from his coronation. He also refused to accept gifts from the Jewish. The townspeople took it as persecution and began rioting against the Jews. On September 4, 1189, the riots spreand and this day marked as the beginning of the Third Crusade in England.
  • Mar 16, 1190

    Massacre in York

    Massacre in York
    The small Jewish community of York gathered inside the keep of York's medieval castle, Clifford's Tower, for protection from the rioting townspeople. Many Jews committed suicide over being murdered by the riots or being Baptised. This event has become the most notorious example of antisemitsm. (History of Information).
  • Mar 22, 1190

    King Richard's Anger

    King Richard's Anger
    King Richard, angered by the death's of the Jews due to the riots and pogrom, issued a charter in favor of the Jewish people. He issued heavy fines against two of the families who were involved in the pogrom in 1190 (Medieval Sourcebook:
    Richard I of England: Charter by Which Many Liberties are Granted and Confirmed to the Jews, 22 March, 1190). He did this, not only to help the Jews, but to also enrich his treasury and hurt his opponents. This act actually bettered how Jews lived in this time.
  • Apr 4, 1190

    Palm Sunday

    Palm Sunday
    The day after the massacre at York, 57 Jews were killed on Palm Sunday (I Am the Witness).
  • Jan 1, 1195

    Mishneh Torah

    Mishneh Torah
    This did not happen on the first of January. Towards the end of the 12th century Moses Maimonides published his work the Mishneh Torah. The Mishneh Torah is a guide to the Jewish law system. This book was an instant hit in it's time, and it allowed the Jews to all know their laws (The Mishneh Torah).