The World Before the Great War

  • Austria-Hungary

    Austria and Hungary decide to join together and divide their land based on nationalities.
  • Dual Monarchy

    When Austria and Hungary joined together
  • Benjamin Disraeli

    Prime minister of Great Britain until late 1868
  • German/French Relations

    France was still upset with Germany over Alsace-Lorraine. Germany was almost successful in encouraging France to look for territory elsewhere and forget about Alsace-Lorraine.
  • Giant in the Midst

    Germany is growing rapidly and making a lot of overlapping alliances. Germany had a geopolitical system and was looking for what was best for their country.
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    In many European countries, there is a huge increase in military spending and a push for the development of military technology. There is general support from the people for the goals and plans of the nation's military. By the end of the 19th century, European powers have the largest militaries they have ever had. All was part of the idea of deterrence (if my army is bigger than yours, you won't attack me)
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    Industrialization/Industrial Output

    Determined the nature of the war. There was a quick output of weapons, ammunition and machines and makes a large scale war more likely. It did not cause the war, but changed the nature
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    Bismarckian Foreign Policy

    Bismarck wanted to act as a mediator between Russia and Austria-Hungary so the two wouldn't go to war and Germany wouldn't have to pick sides. Bismarck created a network of alliances to gain allies when the war would break out
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    Otto von Bismarck

    Chancellor of Germany; created many alliances to become a mediator between Russia and Austria-Hungary. The alliances were very complex and after he was dismissed, no one knew how to uphold them.
  • Alsace-Lorraine

    Lost in the Franco-Prussian War to Prussia. Many conflicts between France and Germany over this land
  • Three Emperor's League

    Between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to try and keep the peace in Europe. Alexnader III refused to renew the treaty in 1887.
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    Benjamin Disraeli

    Passed many measures to protect workers
  • Dual Alliance

    Between Germany and Austria-Hungary; Each country would aid the other, particularly if they were attacked by Russia, or if Russia helps another country attacks them. Evolved into the Triple Alliance
  • William Gladstone

    Defeated Disraeli for prime minister in 1880. He judged foreign policy based on morals instead of geopolitical criteria, like American president, Woodrow Wilson. Gladstone insisted that morality was the only basis for a sound foreign policy, and that respect for human rights and Christian decency should guide British foreign policy
  • Triple Alliance

    The Dual Alliance now included Italy to form the Triple Alliance. To keep Italy and Austria-Hungary from fighting and keep peace; Germany and Austria-Hungary will help Italy if they are attacked by France; Italy will help Germany and/or Austria-Hungary if they are attacked by France; if any of the 3 go to war with 2 other countries, the other 2 will help
  • Reinsurance Treaty

    Made to keep Germany from having to fight a two-front war; If Germany fights with France then Russia would remain neutral
  • Mediterranean Agreements

    Understanding between Austria-Hungary, Italy and Great Britain to maintain the status quo in the mediterranean areas
  • A trois in a Europe of Five Powers

    Britian, France and Russia had the strongest alliance because they were three of the five most powerful nations in Europe
  • Britain and Splendid Isolation

    Britain was enjoying its isolation because they didn't want to join into a military agreement with other countries and be forced to fight. They chose their battles carefully and only joined if it was good for the people.
  • Rival European Nations

    Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
    Triple Entente: Great Britain, Russia and France
  • French Imperialism

    When Wilhelm II refused to resign the Reinsurance Treaty, Russia was left isolated, France, after being humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War and ineffective foreign policy, loaned Russia 400 million pounds for military understanding. The two countries eventually formed the Franco-Russian Alliance. France then made an agreement with Italy regarding spheres of influence in North Africa
  • Franco-Russian Alliance

    Between France and Russia. Russia will fight with France if Germany attacks France; France will fight with Russia if Germany attacks Russia
  • Russian Protection of Slavic nationalists

    Russia is going through a Pan-Slavic period and they see the Balkans as their brothers and feel it's their destiny to bring peach and harmony to them and to save them from Austria-Hungary
  • Balkans

    Place of conflict as the Ottoman Empire fell apart. Austria-Hungary saw it as a place to expand. Many different cultural groups, Slavs being the largest which is why Russia took such an interest in them.
  • Entente Cordiale

    Between Great Britain and France (would later come to include Russia) and settled colonial differences in Perisa, Tibet and Afghanistan. NOT a military alliance
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    Russo-Japanese War

    Showed that Russia was weak and easily defeated
  • HMS Dreadnought

    British ship that was revolutionary in design, speed and materials. Imphasized deterrence and militarism.
  • Triple Entente

    Between Britain, France and Russia. Was made to settle differences with the colonies of Persia, Tibet and Afghanistan; Britain refused to enter into a military alliance with either of the countries.
  • The Balkan League

    Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montegreno. Serbia and Bulgaria are landlocked so they have to ally with other countries in order to be a real threat. The Balkan League attack Turkey in the First Balkan War.
  • First Balkan War

    Serbia, Bulgaria, Montegreno and Greece joined to form the Balkan League and to fight against Turkey. Turkey lost almost all control of their land
  • First Balkan War

    The Balkan League attacked Turkey. Turkey lost almost all countrol of its land in Europe and brought back the question of land division
  • Second Balkan War

    Bulgaria tried to push out the Greeks and Serbians from Macedonia because they thought they should control it. Bulgaria lost BAD and had to surrender most of the land they had won in the First Balkan War.
  • White Dominions

    Canada, Australia and New Zealand were territories of Great Britain and would be dragged into the war should there be one.
  • Serbia

    After the First and Second Balkan War, Serbia was more of a power player in the declining Ottoman Empire. A Serbian radical assassinated Franz Ferdinand, the Archduke of Austria-Hungary. After the assassination, Austria-Hungary gave a list of demands to Serbia and shortly after declared war on them, strarting World War 1.
  • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

    Archduke of Austria-Hungary and was assassinated by a Serbian radical of a group called the Black Hand. Austria-Hungary saw this as an opportunity to control Serbian nationalism and gave them a list of demands. Shortly after, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
  • July Crisis

    Shortly after Austria-Hungary gave their demands to Serbia, Russia started mobilizing their troops south towards Serbia. Germany gave them a warning to stop and then declared war on them when they didn't. Then Germany demanded that France remain neutral and that they surrender the fortresses Toul and Verdun as proof of their neutrality. To get to France, Germany went through Belgium, which inacted the only military alliance Great Britain had so they declared war on Germany