The Industrial Revolution

  • Period: to

    Industrial revolution

  • Bank of England

    Bank of England
  • Enclosure Act

    Enclosure Act
    Enclosure, or the process that ended traditional rights on common land formerly held in the open field system and restricted the use of land to the owner, is one of the causes of the Agricultural Revolution and a key factor behind the labor migration from rural areas to gradually industrializing cities.
  • Bristol Iron Company

    Bristol Iron Company
    Darby, who had used coke in smelting copper in Bristol, in 1708 founded the Bristol Iron Company. He acquired premises at Coalbrookdale, on the Severn, close to supplies of low-sulfur coal. In 1709 he produced marketable iron in a coke-fired furnace. He presently demonstrated the superiority of coke in cost and efficiency by building much larger furnaces than were possible with charcoal as a fuel, the latter being too weak to support a heavy charge of iron.
  • Newcomen Atmospheric engine

    Newcomen Atmospheric engine
    The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712 and is often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine. The engine was operated by condensing steam drawn into the cylinder, creating a partial vacuum that allowed the atmospheric pressure to push the piston into the cylinder. It was the first practical device to harness steam to produce mechanical work. Newcomen engines were used throughout Britain, principally to pump water out of mines.
  • Kay's Flying shuttle

    Kay's Flying shuttle
    The flying shuttle was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It allowed a single weaver to weave much wider fabrics, and it could be mechanized, allowing for automatic machine looms. The flying shuttle was patented by John Kay in 1733. Where a broad-cloth loom previously required a weaver on each side, it could now be worked by a single operator. Before this, the textile industry had required four spinners to service one weaver.
  • Defeat of the Invasion of Scots

    Defeat of the Invasion of Scots
    It was an attempt by the Scottish Jacobitism to restore the House of Steward to the Throne. Thus the defeat was pivotal to ensuring political stability.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    Development of new agricultural methods, increasing agricultural output. These methods included selective breeding (wherein animals with strong genetics were chosen to breed with others in order to produce stronger animals with a higher percentage of fat) and the Norfolk four-course system (the discovery that certain plants emit chemicals into the farmland that can fertilise the soil) among others. Necessary to feeding the growing population of England, as well as introduce the market mechanism.
  • 15% of Britains population was urbanized

    15% of Britains population was urbanized
  • George III reign begins

    George III reign begins
    He was supportive of agricultural innovation, even cultivating his own model farm.
  • Early Development: Canals

    Early Development: Canals
    Event: In 1761: the Duke of Bridgewater built a canal from his coal mines in Worsley to industrial Manchester.Aqueducts, tunnels, and locks to overcome Geographical Obstacles Importance: The transportation of coal became easier thus dropping the price of the commodity and demand meant profits from coal went up
  • First modern Factory [Lombe's Mill ]

    First modern Factory [Lombe's Mill ]
    Lombe's Mill was the first successful silk throwing mill in England and probably the first fully mechanised factory in the world. Thomas Cotchett had attempted to open a mill in Derby in 1704, that resulted in failure.
  • Spinning Jenny

    Spinning Jenny
    A key development in the industrialization of textile manufacturing during the early Industrial Revolution. The device reduced the amount of work needed to produce cloth, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This grew to 120 as technology advanced.
  • Poor Harvest

    Poor Harvest
  • Development of the Factory Sytsem: Steam Engine

    Development of the Factory Sytsem: Steam Engine
    James Watt re-invents the stationary steam engine designed to more simply pump water out of coal mines Importance:
    -He made the possibility of powered mechanisation of industry possible
    -By 1776 Watts engine was power blasting furnaces enabling people to produce better quality iron and reducing the amount of coal needed to make the iron. Better quality iron allowed for more efficient engines to be made
  • Turnpike Trusts 1750-1770

    Turnpike Trusts 1750-1770
    Event: Parliament passed over 500 acts creating the trusts and covering 24 000km of road Importance: Allowed for greater transport pre-revolution which paved the way for the creation of other transportation methods
  • Enclosure Act

    Enclosure Act
    The powers granted in the Inclosure Act were often abused by landowners: the preliminary meetings where enclosure was discussed, intended to be held in public, were often made in the presence of only the local landowners. In 1774, Parliament added an amendment to the Act under the Standing Orders that every petition for enclosure had to be affixed to the door of the local church for three consecutive Sundays in August or September.
  • Watt's Engine

    Watt's Engine
    In 1765, Watt began working on a new version of the Newcomen steam engine after observing the amount of steam going to waste in the Newcomen steam engine. He solved this by adding a second condenser to the engine, which conserved the excess steam by storing it at a higher temperature. In 1776 he officially patented a separate steam engine, built off the Newcomen steam engine, after being encouraged to do so by a close friend.
  • Commercial Treaty with USA

    Commercial Treaty with USA
    Despite the American War of Independence, 1783 peace treaty with the new United States took great care to ensure that trade flowed freely between both countries. By 1800, the United States was taking 25% of all British exports.
  • The Dishley Society

    The Dishley Society
    The New Dishley Society exists to promote the memory of Robert Bakewell of Dishley Grange (1725-1795), and of his contemporaries and students of his methods. It aims to spread knowledge of his work and appreciation of his pioneering legacy in the breeding of improved farm livestock; he improved the Longhorn breed of cattle, developed the New Leicester sheep and bred the Improved Black Cart Horse which later became the Shire Horse.
  • William Pit becomes Prime Minister

    William Pit becomes Prime Minister
    Son of a merchant (Earl of Chatham) who made his profits overseas and therefore eager to implement legislative that developed the British economy.
  • Commercial Treaty with France

    Commercial Treaty with France
    In 1786, he established a commercial treaty with Britain’s traditional enemy, France, which enabled British goods to sell more freely in France. In return, the French could export products, such as wine, to Britain.
  • Speenhamland System

    Speenhamland System
    A practice of economic relief for the poor. Landowners paid taxes known as Poor Rates that would provide financial support to people within the community. It lasted until the enactment of the Poor Law Amendment in 1834.
  • The Development of Canals

    The Development of Canals
    Event: 3000km of canals have been built Importance:
    Lots of nice canals to transport lots of nice goodies
  • Mobile steam Engine: Developments in Transport

    Mobile steam Engine: Developments in Transport
    Event: Richard Trevithick begins to experiment with mobile steam engines Importance: A cheeky precursor to the railway trains
  • 25% of Britain's population was urbanized

    25% of Britain's population was urbanized
  • First steam locomotive

    First steam locomotive
    The first steam railway locomotive was introduced by Richard Trevithick in 1804. He was the first engineer to build a successful high-pressure stationary steam engine in 1799. He followed this with a road-going steam carriage in 1801. Although that experiment ended in failure, in 1804 he built a successful unnamed rail-going steam locomotive for the narrow-gauge Merthyr Tramroad. This locomotive proved that steam traction was a viable proposition
  • Luddite Riots

    Luddite Riots
    Consisted of significant attempts establishment of new machines and mostly involved skilled men in textile industries. In Lancashire, there was machinery smashed.
  • Corn Laws

    Corn Laws
    These were tariffs and trade restrictions on imported food and corn enforced in the UK between 1815 and 1846
  • Bad Harvest

    Bad Harvest
    the usual
  • Peterloo

    Chartist demonstration and resulted in death of 11 people due to overreaction from local magistrate.
  • Trade Unions made legal

    Trade Unions made legal
  • Trade Union Laws modified

    Trade Union Laws modified
    No strikes only negotiations.
  • Bad Harvest

    Bad Harvest
  • Captain Swing Riots

    Captain Swing Riots
    Riots, mainly amongst agricultural workers, that delayed use of threshing machines.
  • Attempt to form agricultural trade union

    Attempt to form agricultural trade union
    This failed...
  • George III dies

    George III dies
  • Earl Grey (liberal) is elected

    Earl Grey (liberal) is elected
    Conservatives kicked out...
  • The Railway: Development in transport

    The Railway: Development in transport
    Event: 400 000 passengers use the railways (George and Robert Stephenson's) NOT THE ROCKET Importance: Demand for the railways was high meaning the incentive for profits were high which led to the development of more railways
  • Manchester Population

    Manchester Population
    Experienced a 46% population increase over 10 years
  • Rise of Chartism

    Rise of Chartism
    Working class families tried to bring real improvement to their lives
  • Child mortality

    Child mortality
    50% of children died before their 5th birthday
  • The "death" of canals

    The "death" of canals
    Event: Around 1830-ish with the railway becoming more mainstream the development of canals slowed down but to call it the death of canals is an exaggeration Importance: The shift from canals allowed for the development of the railway and thus faster and reliable transportation it also encouraged innovation in the manufacturing industry
  • Great Reform Act

    Great Reform Act
    Parliamentary Reform, attempted to reduce aristocratic power in political process
  • Factory Act

    Factory Act
    No Child Under the age of 9 could be employed, Restrictions placed on working hours of under 18 year old's. Children over 9 and under 13 had to receive at least 2 hours of education.
  • New Poor Law

    New Poor Law
    Intention to create welfare system designed to deal with new industrial society. Hated, brutally administered
  • Newport rising

    Newport rising
    Minors protesting about arrest of a chartist speaker. Soldiers released, 12 deaths
  • Steamships: Developments in Transport

    Steamships: Developments in Transport
    Event: First regular transatlantic cargo + passenger service Importance: Steamship transport starts to break into the market
  • Mines Act

    Mines Act
    prohibited women and children from working underground and established inspectors to investigate and prosecute employers for poor working conditions.
  • Steamships: Development in Transport

    Steamships: Development in Transport
    Event: First wrought iron ships Importance: well... I mean it's the first wrought iron ship. So ...
  • Over 100 members of parliament invested shares in the railway industry

    Over 100 members of parliament invested shares in the railway industry
  • Factory Act

    Factory Act
    Reduced maximum working hours of 8-13 year old's to 6 and 1/2 a day, increased required education to 3 hours a day. Stopped women from working night shifts, enforced maximum of 12 hour work day for women.
  • Railway: Development in Transport

    Railway: Development in Transport
    Event: An act of parliament required every railway to run 1 public service a day Importance: It encourages the growth of railways and development of railway services
  • Corresponding societies set up shop in Rochdale

    Corresponding societies set up shop in Rochdale
    Middle Class people putting up shops and sharing profits.
  • Corn Law abolished

    Corn Law abolished
  • Factory Act

    Factory Act
    reinforced the policies of the Factory Act of 1844 except further reduced female working to 10 hours and aloud them to work only a 58 hour work week at maximum
  • Public health Act

    Public health Act
    establishment of the General Board of Health, which was responsible for advising on public health matters such as epidemics and disease prevention. It was also empowered with establishing and managing local boards of health
  • Better payed men allowed to vote

    Better payed men allowed to vote
    Great reform act amended to allow all men with better pay to vote instead of just men of property.