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Ch.15 Society and Economy, 18th Century

  • Period: Nov 6, 1400 to

    Old Regime (Ancien Regime)

    "old order" of Europe dominated by monarchy, pre-industrial economic structures (mostly farming), and traditonal social roles based on collective identity
  • Period: Nov 7, 1500 to

    Commercial Revolution

    ~16th century to 18th century
    A move from self-sufficient, subsistent farming to a commercial based nation-state economy
  • Period: Nov 7, 1500 to

    Scientific Revolution

    ~16th to 17th century
    scientific and technical development ushering in machinery
  • Paris Foundling Hospitals

    Took in unwanted babies
  • Period: to

    Jethro Tull

    used the seed drill to plant in straight rows for more yield and later planting
    More efficient!
  • Period: to

    Charles "Turnip" Townsend

    developed crop rotation using wheat, turnips, carley, and clover so fields did not lie fallow, yielding better soil and more fodder for livestock. This created more meat and manure for field fertilzer, increasing food supply and thus, population growth
  • Population 100-120 million

  • Enclosure!!!

    50% of English open-field land came under legal enclosure, vastly improving commercial production and severely undercutting the poorer peasant communities(wealthy peasants reaped great profits).
    The paternal lord-serf relationship was broken
    This pattern slowly spread across the continent
  • thomas Newcomen's steam pump

    thomas Newcomen's steam pump
    early 18th century
    1% efficient pump using pistons
    used in mines and improved upon by Watt
  • Period: to

    Agricultural Revolution

    ~18th to 19th century
    land enclosure and innovation in farming and breeding
    Food most important
    population growth
    New Crops and methods
    (Tull, Townsend, Bakewell, Young)
    France innovated but enclosed less, increasing food supply but avoided peasand riots
    Eastern Europe- less innovation occured as landlords extended landholdings and worked to squeeze more labor out of serfs
  • Period: to

    Jewish Populations

    Mostly in eastern Europe
    discrimination and legal limits
    Poland- 3 million
    Austria- 150K
    100K Prussia
    Catherine II of Russia excluded Jews at first
    Partitions of Poland
    Court Jews, Samuel Oppenheimer
    Jews who converted welcomed into christian community
    Most poor
  • Period: to


    Better agriculture, more food, more people
    Decline in death
    new demand for food, goods, jobs and services
    more migration to cities
    social and political discontent
    some hygiene
    POTATO- more stable and nutritious
  • Period: to

    France population growth 18 to 26 million

  • Period: to

    Russia population growth 19 to 29 million

  • Period: to

    Robert Bakewell

    experimented with new breeding methods for bigger, better animals producing more meat and milk
  • Period: to

    Matthew Boulton

    partner of Watt who consults with Jon Wilkinson to apply Watt's engine for commercial use
    Convinces Watt to make further improvements, thus transforming the cotton industry and transportation in shipping, wagons adn rails
  • John Kay's Flying Shuttle

    John Kay's Flying Shuttle
    mechanized shuttle to increase weaving
  • London Foundling Hospital

    Significant spike in 18th century (1,700 to 7,600)
    Lottery to take in children
    Rising food prices caused more abandonment
    10% lived past 10 years old
  • Period: to

    Arthur Young

    edited the Annals of Agriculture, was secretary of the British Board of Agriculture and traveled and published widely on agricultural techniques
  • Period: to

    England population 6 to 10 million

  • Period: to


    ~18th to 19th centuries
    Sustained economic growth based on mechanized production with the means and modes of production in the hands of private owners centered around factories and urban living Effects:
    Restructuring of work and life from rural to urban
    Decline of women's work and status
    Growth of cities
    Dislocation of poor adn rise of the middle clas (bourgeoise) Not political, didn't happen quickly
    Began in England!
  • Religious riots against Jewish natrualization in London

  • James Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny

    James Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny
    allowed multiple spindles on one machine multiplying output (from 16 to 120 by 1900)
  • Richard Arkwright's water frame

    Richard Arkwright's water frame
    water powered divice for cotton production; had to be near streams and initiates the factory. Steam later used.
    Increased cotton production by 800%; 40% domestic exports in 1815 and 50% by 1830
  • ***James Watt's steam engine

    ***James Watt's steam engine
    more than any other invention, this device expanded industrialization in textiles, mining, and ultimately, transportation.
    SYMBIOTIC relationships:
  • Period: to

    Partitions fo Poland

    Austria, Prussia, Russia gain many Jews
  • Edmund Cartwright's power loom

    Edmund Cartwright's power loom
    by the 1830s machine looms replaced most handloom workers
  • Gordon riots against perceived Catholic sympathy

  • Henry Cort's puddling process, rolling mill

    Henry Cort's puddling process, rolling mill
    improved quality of iron
    Rolling mill:
    create iron bars and rails, etc
  • Population 190 million

  • Acts of Parliament

  • Population 260 million