Industrial Revolution

  • Spinning Jenny

    Spinning Jenny
    The Spinning Jenny was invented in 1764 by British carpenter James Hargreaves. The invention is an evolution of the spinning wheel, with multiple spindles so that a wheel could spin eight and later eighty threads of cotton or wool at once. The Spinning Jenny uprooted the past where cotton was spun at homes and expedited the onset of factories, with a central source of power enough to drive a network of these machines.
  • Thomas Malthus

    Thomas Malthus
    Malthus was born in England and became an English economist and demographer, he is most known for the Malthusian theory in his book, "Principle of Population". His theory stated that population growth would outrun production growth to sustain the population, and that our population growth intrinsically must be limited by "vices, misery, and moral restraint."
  • Robert Owen

    Robert Owen
    Of Welsh origin and known as the "Father of British Socialism," Owen excelled in business and pioneered management theory. He owned several factories and is known for his progressive and relatively ethical management. He was against allowing very young children to work, and prohibited corporal punishment, while supporting education and improving the lives of his employees.
  • George Stephenson

    George Stephenson
    Stephenson was born in England and initially worked the same job as his father, operating a steam engine used to pump water out a coal mine. His genius with steam engines lead him to chief mechanic of the Killingworth colliery. Stephenson improved upon previous steam engined by introducing the "steam blast" and is most known for building the engine pulling the first public passenger train, its maiden ride on in 1825.
  • Utilitarianism

    English philosopher Bentham publishes "An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation," his first book on the principles of utility. Bentham believed we were ruled by pain and pleasure and the principle of utility was to approve actions supporting pleasure. The classical utilitarians focused on the legal and social reform and the removal of any corrupt practices.
  • Mutual-Aid Societies

    Mutual-Aid Societies
    Mutual-aid societies are groups where members voluntarily protect and insure each other against debts incurred through illness, death, or old age. There were many different kinds, such as dividing societies, building societies, fraternal, etc.They were largely even more favorable than professional insurance programs. The most common pay-outs were maternity leave and retirement.
  • Henry Bessemer

    Henry Bessemer
    Bessemer was born in England and first came into wealth by selling a bronze paint as substitute for gold in decor and a factory to create. Bessemer is most known for the Bessemer Converter. This invention could efficiently create large amounts of high grade steel, blowing air through it to remove carbon and strengthen the steel. With this, Bessemer was able to undersell all his competitors and the new steel opened up many new possibilities for construction.
  • Socialism

    Owen launches an experimental community in New Harmony, based on the principles of self-sufficiency, cooperation and public ownership of property. In response to the social and economic consequences of the Industrial Revolution grew Socialism, the belief that work and the means of production should benefit and perhaps be owned by the community, instead of only making the rich heads richer as it was currently doing.
  • Dynamo

    Faraday creates the first laboratory models of an electric generator or dynamo in 1831 although they're not much of a dynamo in their tiny voltage and lack of a commuter. These generators aren't developed past toys or oddities until the first practical dynamo by Gramme in 1871. With this invention comes the commercial use of electricity in industry for fast and more efficient manufacturing and production.
  • Communism

    Karl Marx releases the Communist Manifesto! Communism is a political-economic-social policy that aimed for a classless society with communal ownership of the means of production. Supposedly, the exploited workers would develop class consciousness and resolve the class conflict with revolutionary struggle, transferring the means of production from the bourgeoisie to the proletariat. The policy of course gains massive traction in some countries.
  • Germ Theory

    Germ Theory
    Germ theory is the explanation of diseases as processes between microorganisms and hosts. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur runs several experiments proving that process like souring milk or fermentation in wine are caused by microorganisms. The pasteurization of milk follows. Soon after is Lister, who introduced the use of antiseptics for surgery and the identification of various pathogens by Koch.
  • Gulglielmo Marconi

    Gulglielmo Marconi
    An Italian inventor, Marconi successfully sent wireless signals over a mile and a half during experiments at his father's country estate. The next year, Marconi achieved the world's first patent for a machine of wireless telegraphy. He became decorated around the world as he continued his research in radio and micro waves, experimenting and demonstrating around the world.
  • Social Gospel

    Social Gospel
    Washington Gladden publishes his book, "The Christian Way: Whither It Leads and How to Go." The Social Gospel focuses the betterment of society using Christian principles. Argued that current situation was a consequence of greed, and that it's our Godly duty to help the less fortunate.
  • Automobile

    Four-stroke engines, electric cars, practical cars, and taxi services already came into existence in the 1800s. In 1901 in Europe was the quality but expensive Mercedes, and in America the same year was the financially reachable but highly inferior Olds. In 1908 comes the first largely affordable but decent quality automobile in the Ford Model T.
  • Assembly Line

    Assembly Line
    Henry Ford installs the first moving assembly line for the mass production of entire automobiles. Ford was inspired by the flow methods in the food industry, and originally used a rope to pull the vehicles down the line, but later a moving chain. The innovation lowered the production time for a car from 12 hours to 1 and a half, and allowed him undersell and out-wage his competitors.