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The Industrial Revolution

  • Rotherham plough

    Rotherham plough
    The Rotherham plow was built in England in 1730; and its triangular shape made it easier to pull it and it was better adapted to be pulled by horses. It was built by the Dutch Joseph Foljambe and marks the beginning of its industrial manufacture.
  • Use of coke in blast furnaces

    Use of coke in blast furnaces
    Coke is a residue from the distillation of coal that is used in large quantities in blast furnaces to make iron. In 1732 it was when in England this fuel was commonly used for this operation.
  • Kay´s flying shuttle

    Kay´s flying shuttle
    The flying shuttle, created by John Kay in 1733, was the first step in the mechanization of the loom and significantly increased the productivity of the weavers. It consisted of a mechanism of levers that pushed the shuttle down a track, this enabled the manufacture of wider fabrics than before in the field of human action.
  • Spinning machine spinning jenny

    Spinning machine spinning jenny
    The spinner Jenny was a multi-coil spinning machine, invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves. It was the first important technical innovation in the textile industry and one of those that opened the doors to the Industrial Revolution, being considered for that reason a symbol of the time. It was the first time in history that a factory mechanized its production process.
  • Watt´s steam engine

    Watt´s steam engine
    The steam engine has been the initial engine of the Industrial Revolution that drives today. The First Industrial Revolution is based on the steam engine, which, since the end of the eighteenth century in England and until almost the middle of the nineteenth century, marvelously accelerated the economic development of many of the main countries of Western Europe and the United States. It was invented by James Watt.
  • Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations
    It is considered the first modern book of economics.
    He presents his analysis on the origin of the prosperity of countries like England or the Netherlands. It develops economic theories about the division of labor, the market, currency, the nature of wealth, the price of goods in labor, wages, profits and the accumulation of capital. It examines different systems of political economy, in particular, mercantilism and physiocracy; He also develops the idea of ​​a natural order.
  • threshing machine

    threshing machine
    The first threshing machines were invented in Great Britain in the 1780s and American-made machines soon followed.
  • Cartwright´s mechanical loom

    Cartwright´s mechanical loom
    In 1784, Edward Cartwright invented the mechanical loom, an invention that changed the course of humanity. Cartwright designed the first mechanical loom in 1784 and patented it in 1785. That loom worked with hydraulic power (worked with steam) that greatly accelerated the manufacture of cloth.
    The introduction of this mechanical loom was rejected by those who had been replaced in their jobs.
    At the beginning of the 19th century, the mechanical loom was widely used.
  • first steam boats

    first steam boats
    Its appearance supposed a whole revolution in the world maritime navigation since they did not depend so much on the winds and currents. The first real transatlantic ships were steam.
  • Luddism (1811-1817)

    Luddism (1811-1817)
    Luddism has been used to describe the ideology of people opposed to the use of technology. Luddism refers to a popular movement emerged in England in the early nineteenth century, led by artisans who protested against the growing use of machines in the productive process – especially threshers and looms
  • mechanical reaper

    mechanical reaper
    The mechanical reaper was invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831. This machine was used by farmers to harvest crops mechanically. For hundreds of years, farmers and field workers had to harvest crops by hand using a sickle or other methods, which was an arduous task at best. The McCormick mechanical reaper replaced the manual cutting of the crop with scythes and sickles. This new invention allowed wheat to be harvested quicker and with less labor force.
  • first trade unions

    first trade unions
    Skilled workers in Britain began organising themselves into trade unions in the 17th century (preceded by guilds in medieval times). During the 18th century, when the industrial revolution prompted a wave of new trade disputes, the government introduced measures to prevent collective action by the part of workers.
  • stephenson´s steam locomotive

    stephenson´s steam locomotive
    Locomotion, took 450 people 25 miles from Darlington to Stockton at 15 miles per hour. This was the first outing of the world’s first public passenger steam train. By 1830 Stephenson’s new locomotive, the Rocket, which could achieve a speed of 36 miles per hour, was operating on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in Lancashire with other ‘iron horses’ built in the factory he had now opened in Newcastle. The railway age had begun and George Stephenson was its guiding spirit.
  • Grand National Consolidated Trade Union

    Grand National Consolidated Trade Union
    Was an early attempt to form a national union confederation in the United Kingdom. There had been several attempts to form national general unions in the 1820s, culminating with the National Association for the Protection of Labour, established in 1830.
  • Bessemer converter steel manufacturing

    Bessemer converter steel manufacturing
    The Bessemer Process is the method for making steel by blasting compressed air through molten iron to burn out excess carbon and impurities. The Bessemer Process lowered the cost of production steel, leading to steel being widely substituted for cast iron. It was the creation of modern steel.
  • First International

    First International
    The First International was founded under the name of International Working Men’s Association at a mass meeting in London on Sept. 28, 1864. Its founders were among the most powerful British and French trade-union leaders of the time. Though Karl Marx had no part in organizing the meeting, he was elected one of the 32 members of the provisional General Council and at once assumed its leadership.