Jan 1, 700
The Pueblo IndiansThe Pueblo peoples began to construct adobe houses with apartment like rooms out of clay.
Maize was a staple of their diet.
Pottery was used to communicate important events, animals, and figures in Pueblo culture. Pueblo
Jan 1, 1000
The CaddoThe Caddo have been in Texas as early as 800 BCE.
They lived in East Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma where the region included springs, creeks, streams, rivers, trees and swamps.
The Caddo were farmers who raiseed corn, beans, and squash. When they hunted they ate deer, turkey, rabbits, squirrels and lived in tall grass huts. Caddo
Jan 1, 1300
The Gulf IndiansThe Gulf Indians consisted of the Caddoes, Coahuiltecans, Karankawas, and Wichitas. Gulf Indians
Jan 1, 1500
Before Europeans...Before the 1500s, Native Americans lived in the area between the Rio Grande and the Red River.
Jun 1, 1519
Mapping TexasAlonso Alvarez de Pineda mapped the coastline of Texas. There are no accounts of this journey- other than there were four ships, 270 men, and sailed from Jamaica. Alvarez de Pineda
Jan 1, 1528
The Texas ApachesOriginating from Canada, the Apaches migrated to Texas. Apache is the Zuni word for "enemy."
The Apache were semi-sedentary so they farmed in the warmer months and were hunter the other parts of the year.
They lived in both tee-pees and wickiups: a wooden circular frame covered in hide. Apaches
Jan 1, 1528
Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca explores TexasBorn in 1490, this Spanish explorer reached Tampa Bay in 1528 in a shipwreck that killed all but 60 of his fellow shipmates. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Jan 1, 1530
The Plains IndiansAlthough they inhabited America before, the Plains Indians first appeared in history when Cabeza de Vaca came to America. The Plains Indians consisted of the Tonkawas, Jumanoes, Tiguas, Apaches, Comanches, and Kiowas. Plains Indians
Jan 1, 1540
The Introduction of HorsesIn 1540, horses were introduced to the Native Americans by the Spanish. Horses
The Alabama-CoushattaWhile the Alabama-Coushatta were around before 1642, their history started being recorded by the European explorers that year.
They lived as farmers in villages and under the chief's home, they would construct a large mound of dirt so it resembled a temple. In each home, there was always a sacred fire burning- as it was a part of their religion.
They grew corn, beans, and squash among other things. The Alabama-Coushatta
Antonio Margil de JesúsBorn in Spain, this missionary was one of the first in Texas.
He was known as being selfless and kind and stressed putting others before himself.
"Margil supervised the founding of Nuestra Señora de los Dolores and San Miguel de los Adaes... Antonio Margil de Jesús
Francisco HidalgoFancisco Hildago went on numerous missions in East Texas and visited the cities of San Antonio and Saltillo.
He was known to be one of the most consistant and patient missionaries with the East Texas Indians.
He worked with many different tribes in his life and preached to the Apaches before he died. Francisco Hidaglo
The Texas CoahuiltecansThe Coahuiltecans lived in South Texas and were primarily hunters and gatherers.
They ate plants, beans, pears, acorns, and mice.
They were one of the most poor tribes and became extinct early on. Coahuiltecan
Fray Damián MassanetFray Damián Massanet was a Franciscan priest from Spain who "founded the College of Santa Cruz..." in 1683.
His birthday and death are unknown.
He went on the establish a mission near the Coahuila border.
Massanet also assisted the comisarios in establishing East Texas Missions. Massanet
Coahuila and TexasAlonso De Leon was the govenor of Coahuila when his control reached Texas. They breifly lost control in Texas in 1691 but regained it with the appointment of Martín de Alarcón in 1716. Coahuila and Texas were made one bu the Constitution of 1824 and they were eventually parted by the Texas Revolution and the Mexican War. Coahuila and Texas
Slavery in TexasWhen colonization in Texas begain, Native Americans were offered labor contracts.
Throughout the history of Texas, there have always been a mix of pro and anti slavery peoples. Under the Mexican flag, Texas was plunged into the deep south and the number of slaves rose. While part of the United States, Texas only had slavery for 20 years.
Slavery in Texas
The Comanche IndiansAlthough the Comanche were around in the 1500s, they didn't make their way to Texas until later.
They were "fierce warriors" who also were famous for their trade abilities. The leaders of the tribe often wore European clothing as a status symbol.
They were a warring tribe. Comanche
José de EscandónJosé de Escandón was the first governor of Nuevo Santander- a colony which was settled between the Panuco and Guadalupe River.
He established many towns in Texas; prehaps the the most notable was the creation of Laredo.
He is often known as the "father" of the Rio Grande region. José de Escandón
Spanish MissionsThe Spanish established a series of Cathothic missions in order to convert the Native Americans and to bring settlement to Texas. These missions include San Antonio, Goliad, and Nacogdoches. Spanish Missions
Martín De LeónMartín De León "was the only Mexican empresario to found a colony in Texas." He helped defend Texans agast attacks from the Native Americans and was promoted to the rank of captain for his service. De León
Erasmo SeguínErasmo Seguín was a jack of all trades- a political figure, postman, and a businessman. he worked with Moses Austin in order to confirm the approval of American-Texan colonization.
He helped write the Constitution of 1824. Erasmo Seguín
Green DeWittGreen DeWitt formed the DeWitt Colony in Spanish Texas.
He was backed by Stephen F. Austin in his petition for Texas land.
He established a peace treaty with the Karankawa, but was unable to come to peace with the Comanches.
The Mexican government banned any more American immigration into Texas but DeWitt, was able to secure another colony which he later lost because he couldn't convince enough families to move. <a href='https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fde55' >Green DeWitt<
Stephen F. AustinAustin's father, Moses, began a dream to settle Texas with American colonists. When he died, Stephen carried out his dream.
Austin stressed relations with the Mexican government and complied with their empresario system.
He first brought 300 families to Texas. Stephen F. Austin
The Battle of MedinaThe Battle of Medina was fought south of San Antonio in 1813 between the Spanish and the the Republican Army of the North (Texas-Americans.) Mexico was striving for independence from Spain in what is known as one of the bloodiest wars in Texas history. The Battle of Medina
Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824The Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824 mirrored the U.S. Constitution in many ways. However, this constitution stated the Catholic religion was the state faith. The predident and vice president were elected every four years by legislation and there were limits placed on government power. Constitution of 1824
Texas RevolutionWhile there are too many factors to include, the Texas Revolution stated October 2, 1835 and ended April 21, 1836 and was fought between residents of Texas and Mexico in order to gain Texan independence.
It started with the Battle of Gonzales and ended with the Battle of San Jacinto. Texas Revolution
The AlamoGeneral Antonio López de Santa Anna attacked the Alamo on Feburary 23, 1836. The Texans were able to hold off the attack for 13 days before Santa Anna won. William B. Travis commanded the Alamo and fought along Jim Bowie and David Crockett. The Alamo