Texas road map

Ma'chew's Texas Timeline

  • Dec 7, 1519


    Alonso Alvarez de Pineda maps the Texas coast.
  • Dec 8, 1541


    Explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado crosses the Texas Panhandle.
  • Dec 9, 1554


    A Spanish treasure fleet shipwrecks off of present day Padre Island.
  • Dec 10, 1581


    Spaniard Hernan Gallegos writes about the lives of of the Jumano Indians in Texas.
  • 1601

    Juan de Onate crosses the Texas Panhandle on his way to Quivira.
  • 1659

    Spaniards first record seeing Apache Indians riding horses.
  • 1685

    A group of colonists led by French explorer Rene-Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle lands in Matagorda Bay in Texas.
  • 1690

    The Spanish build a mission named San Francisco de Los Tejas.
  • 1718

    Martin de Alarcon establishes the San Antonio de Valero mission.
  • 1731

    Settlers from the Canary Islands arrive in San Antonio.
  • 1755

    Rancher Tomas Sanchez establishes the town of Laredo.
  • 1766

    The Marquez de Rubi expedition begins.
  • 1779

    Antonio Gil Ybarbo founds the town of Nacodoches in East Texas.
  • 1783

    Spanish priest Juan Agustin Morfi, author of the "History of Texas" dies.
  • 1791

    Philip Nolan, a U.S. citizen receives permission to capture wild horses in Texas.
  • 1819

    U.S. citizen James Long and a small force invade Texas only to be defeated by Spanish Forces.
  • 1821

    Mexico, which includes Texas, wins its independence from Spain.
  • 1821

    The Spanish government grants Moses Austin permission to found a colony in Texas.
  • 1822

    Settler Jared Groce plants a cotton crop, possibly the first in Austin's colony.
  • 1823

    About 3,000 Anglo settlers live in Texas without the permission of the Mexican government.
  • 1824

    Empresario Martin de Leon settles families on the lower Guadalupe River.
  • 1824

    Mexican officials adopt the Constitution of 1824. Coahuila and Texas are merged to form one state.
  • 1826

    An American Indian attack on the Green DeWitt colony forces settlers to flee Gonzales.
  • 1826

    The Fredonian Rebellion begins when Haden Edwards declares independence from Mexico.
  • 1827

    Stephen F. Austin receives a contract to settle an additional 100 families in Texas.
  • 1828

    General Manuel de Meir y Teran begins a tour of Texas for the Mexican Government.
  • 1829

    The Texas Gazette newspaper begins publication in Austin's colony.
  • 1829

    Tomas J. Pilgrim organizes a Sunday school and private boys' school in San Felipe.
  • 1829

    President Guerrero issues a decree ending slavery in Mexico, but makes Texas an exception.
  • 1830

    On April 6, Mexico issues a law that changes the rules on immigration and trade in Texas.
  • 1831

    The town of Gonzales receives a canon from the Mexican government to defend citizens against American Indian attacks.
  • 1833

    Mary Austin Holley's letters, describing early life in Texas are published.
  • 1834

    Texas farmers export some 7,000 bales of cotton worth about $315,000 to New Orleans.
  • 1834

    Stephen F. Austin is arrested in Saltillo.
  • October 2, 1835

    Texas settlers attack Mexican soldiers at Gonzales, forcing them to leave.
  • Dec. 9, 1835

    Texas troops push Mexican troops out of San Antonio, capturing the city.
  • 1835

    Texas settlers hold about 3,500 land grants.
  • 1835

    An estimated 1,000 U.S. immigrants enter Texas each month.
  • 1835

    Texas becomes concerned when the Mexican government officially abolishes the Constitution of 1824.
  • Feb. 23, 1836

    The siege of the Alamo begins.
  • March 2, 1836

    The Texas Declaration of Independence is adopted.
  • April 21, 1836

    Texans win the Battle of San Jacinto, ending the Texas Revolution.
  • Dec 10, 1836

    The first official flag is adopted by the Texas Congress.
  • 1836

    Sam Houston becomes the first popularly elected president of the United Republic of Texas
  • 1837

    The Texas government begins work in Houston, the new capital.
  • 1837

    The U.S. congress authorizes a diplomat to go to Texas.
  • 1838

    Texans elect Mirabeau B. Lamar president.
  • 1838

    Velasco citizens hold a hose race on the coast near the town.
  • 1838

    William H. Wharton is elected to the Texas Senate.
  • 1839

    Texas passes a homestead law , protecting settlers' homes from being seized to pay debts.
  • 1839

    Repeated attacks and discrimination force more than 100 Tejano families to flee Nacadoches.
  • 1839...

    ...France became the first European nation to recognize Texas as an independent nation.
  • 1840

    Austin, the new capital, has 850 residents.
  • 1840

    The first college chartered by the Republic, Rutersville College is founded.
  • 1840

    Galveston University opens its doors to five students.
  • 1841

    Texans again elect Sam Houston as president of the Republic.
  • 1841

    William Kennedy publishes "Texas: The Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas.
  • 1841

    President Lamar sends the Texas Navy to the Yucatan coast.
  • 1842

    Snider de Pellegrini, director of a french colonization company brings 14 settlers to Texas.
  • 1842

    General Adrian Woll and about 1,400 Mexican soldiers capture San Antonio.
  • 1843

    The Tehuacana Creek Councils lead to peace between Texas and several Texas indian groups.
  • 1844

    President Sam Houston sends troops into East Texas to end the Regulator-Moderator War.
  • 1844

    Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels comes to Texas followed by a group of German immigrants.
  • 1844

    Texans elect Anson Jones to be the president of the Republic.
  • 1845

    At least 30,000 enslaved African Americans live in Texas.
  • 1845

    The United States annexes Texas.
  • 1846

    Fighting breaks out between Mexican troops and U.S. forces at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
  • 1846

    Texas signs a treaty with the Penateka Comanches.
  • 1846

    Thomas J. Rusk and Sam Houston become the first Texans to serve in the U.S. Senate.
  • 1847

    George T. Wood is elected govoner of Texas.
  • 1847

    Samuel H. Walker dies in combat during a conflict in Mexico.
  • 1847

    A state census reports the states population at more than 142,000.
  • 1850

    The Population of Texas grows to 200,000 people.
  • 1850

    In her book "Texas in 1850", Melinda Rankin describes the state and urges people to move to Texas.
  • 1852

    Work begins on the port Isabel Lighthouse. When completed its light could be seen from 16 miles away.
  • 1853

    U.S. Army troops abandon Ft. Worth after settlers move farther west beyond the fort.
  • 1853

    After many false starts, track is finally laid out for the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railways.
  • 1854

    The American, or know-nothing party becomes active in Texas.
  • 1855

    The governors mansion is built in Austin.
  • 1856

    Slaves in Colorado County acquire weapons and plan a rebellion , but the plot is discovered before it could have begun.
  • 1858

    The Butterfield Overland Mail begins taking passengers and mail by stagecoach from Missouri, through Texas, and on to California.
  • 1859

    Sam Houston easily defeats incumbent Harden Runnels in the election for Texas governor.
  • 1859

    A series of clashes occurs Texas Rangers and Mexican Americans near Brownsville.
  • 1859

    Texas produces a record crop of more the 400,000 bales of cotton.
  • February 1861

    Texans vote by more than tree to one to Secede from the United States.
  • October 1861

    Troops leave San Antonio for New Mexico, planning to capture the southwest for the Confederacy.
  • 1861

    The Texas Frontier Regiment is established.
  • October 1862

    Galveston is captured by Union forces.
  • January 1863

    President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • September 1863

    A Union attempt to invade Texas is turned back at Sabine Pass.
  • November 1863

    Union troops capture Brownsville.
  • 1863

    The Texas cattle population increases rapidly during the civil war.
  • April 1864

    Confederate forces stop a Union invasion of northeastern Texas in a battle near Mansfield, Luisiana.
  • 1864

    Colonel Christopher Carson leads an attack against Plains Indians in the Panhandle.
  • May 1865

    The last land battle of the war is fought at Palmito Ranch, Texas.
  • 1865

    The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect in Texas, freeing the state's slaves.
  • 1868

    African American George T. Ruby is elected as a delegate to the Republican National Convention.
  • 1868

    Near Jacksburo, Fort Richardson is established.
  • 1869

    Republican Edward J. Davis is elected governor of Texas
  • 1869

    The Texas cowboys move a herd of 15,000 cattle to market. It was the single largest herd in the erea.
  • 1870

    Texas has 583 miles of train tracks.
  • 1871

    A public school system is created in Texas.
  • 1873

    Ranchers begin to ship thousands of cattle from Denison after the Missouri-Kansas-Texas RailRoad extends a line there.
  • 1874

    The Democratic Party regains full control of the state government.
  • 1874

    Plains Indians attack a group of Buffalo hunters in the battle of Adobe Walls.
  • 1875

    The Red River War ended when comanche leader Quanah Parker surrendered.
  • 1876

    As an all-male istitution, Texas A&M University opens.
  • 1876

    Texas adopts a new constitution.
  • 1876

    About 2,700 animals die during a cattle stampede near the Brazos River.
  • 1876

    The Texas legislature passes a law the allows the state to fund railroads with land grants.
  • 1879

    Raids across the Texas-Mexican border were launched by Apache leader Victorio.
  • 1881

    Forming the first Transcontinental railroad through Texas, the Texas and Pacific Railway meets the Southern Pacific Railroad line near El Paso.
  • 1882

    A ranch in the Panhandle purchases enough barbed wire to fence in 250,000 acres.
  • 1883

    The University of Texas formally opens.
  • 1886

    A major strike against Jay Gould's railroad company is started by the Knights of Labor.
  • 1889

    The Texas legislature passes the Antitrust Act.
  • 1889

    There are more than 8,000 miles of railroad tracks throughout Texas.
  • 1890

    Texas Normal College and Teacher's Institute now called the University of North Texas opens in Denton.
  • 1891

    the Texas RailRoad Commission is Established to regulate railroads in Texas.
  • 1892

    The Populist party is endorsed by a leading association of farmers.
  • 1894

    In Corsicana drillers strike oil.
  • 1894

    University of Texas, and Texas A&M play their first football game.
  • 1898

    The Rough Riders get trained and organized in San Antonio by Teddy Roosevelt.
  • 1900

    Galveston gets hit by a hurricane killing about 7,000 people.
  • 1900

    Texas has more than 350,000 farms, and almost half of all farmers are tenant farmers.
  • 1901

    More than 17 million barrels of oil came from the Spindletop well strikes oil.
  • 1902

    A baseball record is set by the Corsicana Oilers for defeating the Texarkana team 53 to 1.
  • 1905

    The Humble oil field in Harris county makes a large oils stike.
  • 1907

    The department store Neiman Marcus opens in Dallas.
  • 1908

    Along Galveston Bay, oil is discovered at Goose creek.
  • 1911

    The League of Mexican Women elects their first president Jovita Idar.
  • 1914

    Houston became an important oil refining center after the Houston Ship Channel opens.
  • 1918

    Texas endorses the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits the sale or making of alcohol.
  • 1918

    To fight in World War I, Texas troops are sent to France.
  • 1919

    An application is filed to drill for oil on state-owned land in West Texas. And a few years later the Santa Rita No. 1 strikes oil.
  • Longest River

    Longest River
    The Rio Grande, which runs from Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico, and forms the Texas-Mexico border, is 1,896 miles long.
  • Driest Place

    Driest Place
    The town of Wink Texas got just 1.76 inches of rain in 1956.
  • Wettest Place

    Wettest Place
    The town of Clarksville Texas got 109.4 inches of rain in 1873.
  • Highest Place

    Highest Place
    The highest place in Texas is Guadalupe Peak at 8,749 feet above sea level.
  • Coldest Spot in Texas

    Coldest Spot in Texas
    In 1899 at Tulia and in 1933 at Seminole, the temperature reached a chilling -23F!
  • Hottest Spot

    Hottest Spot
    In 1936 at Seymour and in 1994 at Monahans the temperature reached 120F !
  • Crude Oil

    Crude Oil
    Texas Produced 730 million barrels of crude oil in 2012 worth about $55 billion
  • Texas Indians

    Texas Indians
    C. 10,000 b.c. Proto-Indians live at the Gault site.
  • Coal

    it is estimated that Texas has 23 billion tons of a type of coal called ignite.
  • Irrigation

    6 million acres of Texas land are irrigated.
  • Texas Farms

    Texas Farms
    There were more than 244,700 farms in Texas as of 2012.
  • Aquifers

    The largest underground water source in texas is the Ogallala Aquifer.
  • Agriculure

    In 2012, Agriculture brought some $36 billion dollars to the Texas economy.
  • Water Reserves

    Water Reserves
    The Toledo Bend Reservoir is located on the Sabine River and holds more than 5.5billion cubic meters of water.
  • Natural Lakes

    Natural Lakes
    The largest natural lake in Texas is Caddo Lake, which covers 39 square miles in Texas and Luisiana.
  • Timber!

    In 2007,the Texas timber industry earned more than $1.9 billion.
  • Forests

    There are more than 60 million acres of forests and woodlands in Texas.
  • Cotton

    Texas cotton production value reached over $1.5 billion in 2011.
  • Big Bend

    Big Bend
    The largest national park in Texas is Big Bend which covers more the 800,000 acres of land.
  • Livestock

    In 2007, the total sales of live stock reached $10.8 billion
  • Electronics

    In 2012, Texas' exports of computers and electronics was worth $45 billion.
  • Europeans and Indians

    Europeans and Indians
    Europeans arrived in A.D.1528 in Texas and met the Karankawas.
  • Proto-Indians

    Proto-Indians live on the Gault site.
  • Indian Tools

    Indian Tools
    Costal American Indians made knives and scrapers from stone around 1500 B.C.
  • Indian Pottery

    Indian Pottery
    American Indians living near Galveston Bay begin making pottery around A.D. 100.
  • Indian Crops

    Indian Crops
    The Caddo Indians grew many different crops in East Texas somewhere around A.D. 1,000.
  • 1914

    Leading to the growth in the Houston erea, the Houston Ship Channel is completed.