Period of time in which European explorers made first contsct with the peoples and lands of the Americas.
Oct 13, 1492
Christopher Columbus makes landfall on San Salvador, an island in the Carribean. Columbus gave Spain the first European claim to land in the Americas.
Feb 1, 1519
Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec Empire and claimed what is now known as Mexico for Spain.He established Mexico City as the capital of New Spain.
Jun 1, 1519
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda
Pineda was the first European to explore and map the Texas coastline. His map is considered to be the first document in Texas history.
Nov 6, 1528
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
Cabeza de Vaca is shipwrecked on what is believed to be Galveston Island. He and Esteban, an African slave, are the first Europeans/Africans to enter Texas. His stories would encourage Spanish exploration to the North.
Mar 15, 1539
Was sent North to investigate the claims of golden cities told in the stories of Cabeza de Vaca. He claimed that he saw Cibola, but it later turned out that it was just a Native American village.
Feb 23, 1540
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado was a Spanish conquistador who led a great expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of southwestern United States, including much of Northwest Texas.
Jun 1, 1542
Luis de Moscoso
Took ove the De Soto Expedition and explored much of East Texas for Spain.
Corpus Christi de la Ysleta
Spanish establish the first permanent settlement in Texas.
Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
French Explorer who established Fort St. Louis on the coast of Texas. The short-lived, ill-fated fort did not last, but gave France a claim in Texas, and reignited Spanish interest in exploring and colonizing Texas.
The American colonies win their independence from Great Britain.
Mexico wins its independence from Spain.
Revolution and Republic
Siege of the Alamo begins
Santa Anna's advance forces reach San Antonio, catching the Texans off-guard. Texans scramble inside the Alamo for protection, and the 13 day siege begins.
Texas Independence Day
Texans meating at Washington-on-the-Brazos sign the Texas Declaration of Independnce.
Fall of the Alamo
A 90 minute final assault by Mexican forces takes place. All 200+ Texan defenders are killed including Jim Bowie, Davey Crockett, and William Travis.
Battle of San Jacinto
Texan forces under the command of Sam Houston launch a surprise attack on Santa Anna's forces. The battle was a Tesan route and lasted only 18 minutes. Santa Anna agrees to work for Texan independnce in exchange for his life.
Texas is annexed by the United States by joint resolution making it the 28th state.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Traety of Guadalupe Hidfalgo is signed ending the Mexican-American War. AS a result, the US gained much of the SW US which was known as the Mexican Cession.
Texan voters vote in favor of secession, and Texas becomes the 7th state to secede from the Union.
Bombardment of Fort Sumter
Confederate forces in South Carolina bombard Union troops at Fort Sumter marking the beginning of the Civil War.
Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all of the slaves in Confederates states.
Abraham LIncoln is assassinated in Ford's Theater in Washington DC by John Wilkes Booth.
Battle of Palmito Ranch
The last officaial battle of the Civil War is fought at Palmito Ranch, Texas. The war had already effecttively ended prior to the battle.
The Transcontinental Railroad in completed at Promantory Point, Utah. The entire US is now connected by railroad.
Galveston, Texas is struck by a major hurricane destroying much of the city and killing between 6,000-12,000 residents.
Oil is discoverd at the SPindletop Field near Beaumont, Texas. It was the largest oil field to be discovered at that time.
World War I
The United States declares war on Germany and officially enters WWI.
The Great Depression
The stock market crash of 1929 marked the beginning of the Great Depression. The bank failures of the 1930's and the Dust Bowl would compound the problems faced by the country.
The Japanese launch a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. Over 2,500 Americans died in the attack. The US declares war om Japan and enters WWII.
The US drops the atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. A few days later, a second bomb would be dropped on Nagasaki. Japan surrenders 2 days later, effectively ending WWII.
President Kenedy is assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas. Vice President Lyndon B, Johnson, a Texan, becomes President of the US.