Gracie's Texas History

  • 10,000 BCE


    The Proto-Indians lived at the Gault site
  • 1500 BCE


    Coastal Americans Indians make knives and scrapers from stone
  • 100


    American Indians that lived near Galveston Bay begin making pottery
  • May 15, 1519


    Alonso Alvarez de Pineda maps the Texas coast
  • Oct 19, 1541


    Explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado crosses the Texas Panhandle
  • Apr 10, 1554


    A Spanish treasure fleet shipwrecks off of present-day Padre Island
  • Jun 15, 1581


    Spaniard Hernan Gallegos writes about the lives of the Jumano Indians in Texas
  • Traveling

    Juan de Onate crosses the Texas Panhandle on his way to Quivira
  • Indians

    Spaniards first record seeing Apache Indians riding horses
  • Colonists

    A group of colonists led by French explorer ReneRobert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle lands in Matagorda Bay in Texas
  • Mission

    the Spanish build a mission named San Francisco de los Tejas
  • Established Mission

    Martin de Alarcon establishes the San Antonio de Valero mission
  • Settlers

    Settlers from the Canary Islands arrive in San Antonio
  • Laredo

    Rancher Tomas Sanchez establishes the town of Laredo
  • expedition

    the Marques de Rubi expedition begins
  • town

    Antonio Gil Ybardo founds the town of Nacogodoches in East Texas
  • author dies

    Spanish priest Juan Agustin Morfi, author of the History of Texas, 1673-1779, dies
  • horses

    Philip Nolan, a U.S. citizen, receives permission to capture wild horses in Texas
  • forces

    U.S. citizen James Long and a small force invade Texas, only to be defeated by Spanish forces
  • independence

    Mexico, which includes Texas, wins its independence from spain
  • permission

    The Spanish government grants Moses Austin permission to found a colony in Texas
  • cotton

    Settler Jared Grose plants a cotton crop, possibly the first in Stephen F. Austin's colony
  • settlers

    about 3,000 Anglo settlers live in Texas without the permission of the Mexican government
  • families

    Empresario Martin de Leon settles families on the lower Guadalupe river
  • adopt

    Mexican officials adopt the Constitution of 1824. Coahhuila and Texas are merged to form one state
  • attack

    An American Indian attack on the Green DeWitt colony forces settlers to flee Gonzales
  • families

    Stephen F. Austin receives a contract to settle an additional 100 families in Texas
  • school

    Tomas J. Pilgrim organizes a Sunday school and a private boys' school in San Felipe
  • newspaper

    The Texas Gazette newspaper begins publication in Austin's colony
  • letters

    Mary Austin Holly's letters, describing life in early Texas, are published
  • cotton

    Texas farmers export some 7,00 bales of cotton, worth about $315,000, to New Orleans
  • land

    Texas settlers hold about 3,500 land grants
  • immigrants

    An estimated 1,000 U.S. immigrants enter Texas each month
  • attack

    Texas settlers attack Mexican soldiers at Gonzales, forcing them to leave
  • capturing

    Texas troops push Mexican troops out of San Antonio, capurting the city
  • alamo

    The Siege of the Alamo begins
  • independence

    The Texas Declaration of Independence is adopted
  • revolution

    Texans win the Battle of San Jacinto, ending the Texas Revolution
  • president

    Sam Houston becomes the first popularity elected president of the Republic of Texas
  • flag

    The first official Texas flag is adopted by the Texas Congress
  • capital

    The Texas government begins work in Houston, the new Capital
  • diplomat

    The U.S. Congress authorizes a diplomat to go to Texas
  • horse race

    Velasco citizens hold a horse race on the coast near the town
  • Texas Senate

    William H. Wharton is elected to the Texas Senate
  • new president

    Texans elect Mirabeau B. president
  • debts

    Texas passes a homestead law, protecting setters' homes from being seized to pay debts
  • independent

    France becomes the first European nation to recognize Texas as an independent country
  • attacks

    Repeated attacks and discrimination force more than 100 Tejano families to flee Nacogdoches
  • residents

    Austin, the new capital, has 850 residents
  • college

    The first college chartered by the Republic, Rutersville College, is founded
  • university

    Galveston University opens its doors to five students
  • Yucatan coast

    President Mirabeau B. Lamar sends the Texas Navy to the Yucatan coast
  • published

    William Kennedy publishes Texas: The Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas
  • president

    Texans again elect Sam Houston president of the Republic
  • captured

    General Adrian Woll and about 1,400 Mexican soldiers capture San Antonio
  • settlers

    Snider de Pellegrini, director of a French colonization company, brings 14 settlers to Texas
  • tehuacana creek

    The Tehuacana Creek Councils lead to peace between Texans and several Texas Indian groups
  • immigrants

    Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels comes to Texas followed by a group of German immigrants
  • war

    President Sam Houston sends troops into East Texas to end the Regulator Moderator War
  • president

    Texans elect Anson Jones president of the Republic
  • annexes

    The United States annexes Texas
  • African Americans

    At least 30,00 enslaved African Americans live in Texas
  • U.S. Senate

    Thomas J. Rusk and Sam Houston become the first Texans to serve in the U.S. Senate
  • fighting

    Fighting breaks out between U.S. forces and Mexican troops at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma
  • Peace Treaty

    Texas signs a peace treaty with the Penateka Comanches
  • Population

    A state census reports the state's population at more than 142,00
  • death

    Samuel H. Walker dies in combat during a conflict in Mexico
  • governor

    George T. Wood is elected governor of Texas
  • population

    The Texas population reaches 200,000 people
  • Melinda

    In her book Texas in 1850, Melinda Rankin describes the state and urges people to move to Texas
  • lighthouse

    Work begins in the Port Isabel Lighthouse. When completed, its light could be seen from 16 miles away
  • Fort Worth

    U.S. Army troops abandon Fort Worth after settlers move farther west beyond the fort
  • railway

    After many false starts,track is finally laid for the Buffalo Bayou,Brazos,and Colorado Railway
  • active party

    The American, or Know-Nothing, Party becomes active in Texas
  • mansion

    The Governor's Mansion is built in Austin
  • rebellion

    Slaves in Colorado County acquire weapons and plan a rebellion, but the plot is discovered before it can begin
  • Overland Mail

    The Butterflied Overland Mail begins taking passengers and mail by stagecoach from Missouri, through Texas, and on to California
  • clashes

    A series of clashes occurs between Texas Rangers and Mexican Americans near Brownsville
  • cotton

    Texas produces a record crop of more than 400,000 bales of cotton
  • election

    Sam Houston easily defeats incumbent harden Runnels in the election for Texas governor
  • Vote

    Texans vote, by more than three to one, to secede from the United States
  • Regiment

    The Texas Frontier Regiment is established
  • Capture

    Troops leave San Antonio for New Mexico, planning to capture the Southwest for the Confederacy
  • Galveston

    Union forces capture Galveston
  • Proclamation

    President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation
  • Cattle

    The Texas cattle population increases rapidly during the Civil War
  • invade

    A Union attempt to invade Texas is turned back at Sabine Pass
  • Brownsville

    Union troops capture Brownsville
  • Invasion

    In a battle near Mansfield, Louisiana, Confederate forces stop a Union invasion of northeastern Texas
  • Attack

    Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson leads an attack against Plains Indians in the Panhandle
  • Free Slaves

    The Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect in Texas, freeing the state's slaves
  • Last Battle

    The last land battle of the war is fought at Palmito Ranch, Texas
  • Fort Richardson

    Fort Richardson is established near Jacksboro
  • Convention

    African American George T.Ruby is elected as a delegate to the Republican National Convention
  • Cowboys

    Texas cowboys move a herd of 15,000 cattle to market. It is the largest single herd of the era
  • Governor

    Republican Edmund J. Davis is elected governor
  • Rail Lines

    Texas has 583 miles of rail lines
  • Public School

    A public school system is created in Texas
  • wettest place

    clarksville received 109.4 inches of rain
  • Shipping Cattle

    Ranchers begin to ship thousands of cattle from Denision after the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad extends a line there
  • Democratic Party

    The Democratic Party regains full control of state government
  • Indian Attack

    Plains Indians attack a group of buffalo hunters in the Battle of Adobe Walls
  • Surrendered

    Comanche leader Quanah Parker surrenders, ending the Red River War
  • Dead Animals

    About 2,700 animals die during a cattle stampede near the Brazos River
  • A&M University

    Texas A&M University opens as an all-male military institution
  • Constitution

    Texas adopts a new constitution
  • Railroad Laws

    The Texas legislature passes a law that allows the state to fund railroads with land grants
  • Raids

    Apache leader Victorio launches raids along the Texas-Mexico border
  • Law for Railroads

    The Texas and Pacific Railway meets the Southern Pacific line near El Paso, forming the first transcontinental railroad route through Texas
  • Barbed Wire

    A ranch in the Panhandle purchases enough barbed wire to fence 250,000 acres
  • University

    The University of Texas formally opens
  • Strike

    The Knights of Labor begin a major strike against Jay Gould's railroad company
  • Antitrust Act

    The Texas legislature passes the Antitrust Act of 1889
  • Railroad Track

    There are more than 8,000 miles of railroad track in Texas
  • Texas Normal College

    Texas Normal College and Teachers' Training Institute, now called the University of North Texas, opens in Denton
  • Texas Railroad Commission

    The Texas Railroad Commission is established to regulate railroads in Texas
  • Farmers

    A leading association of farmers endorses the Populist Party
  • Football Game

    The first football game is played between the University of Texas and Texas A&M
  • Drillers

    Drillers strike oil in Corsicana
  • Oil

    Drillers strike oil in Corsicana
  • Teddy Roosevelt

    Teddy Roosevelt organizes and trains the Rough Riders in San Antonio
  • Coldest Spot

    The lowest temperature in Texas was -23 degrees in Tulia
  • Hurricane

    A hurricane hits Galveston, killing some 6,000 to 8,000 people
  • Farms

    Texas has more than 350,000 farms, and almost half of all farmers are tenant farmers
  • Spindletop well

    The Spindletop well strikes oil, producing more than 17 million barrels of oil the next year
  • Baseball

    The Corsicana Oilers set a baseball record by defeating the Texarkana team 51 to 3
  • Oil Strike

    A large oil strike is made in the Humble oil field in Harris County
  • Department

    The first Neiman Marcus department store opens in Dallas
  • Goose Creek

    Oil is discovered at Goose Creek along Galveston Bay
  • Jovita Idar

    Jovita Idar becomes the first president of the League of Mexican Woman
  • Houston Ship Channel

    The Houston Ship Channel opens, and Houston soon becomes an important oil-refining center
  • Houston Ship Channel

    The Houston Ship Channel is completed, leading to the growth of industry in the Houston area
  • Ratifies

    Texas ratifies the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which bans the sale or manufacture of alcohol
  • France

    Texas troops are sent to France to fight in World War 1
  • Application

    An application is filed to drill for oil on state-owned land in West-Texas. Several years later the Santa Rita No. 1 Strikes oil
  • Dockworkers

    Governor William Hobby breaks a dockworkers' strike in Galveston
  • Female Governor

    Texans elect Miriam A. "Ma" Ferguson as the state's first female governor
  • Automobile

    Automobile Registrations reach 1 million
  • Republican

    For the first time in the state's history, the majority of Texans vote for a Republican presidential candidate-Herbert Hoover
  • Unemployed

    Some 300,000 Texans are unemployed
  • Governor

    James V Allred is elected governor of Texas
  • Texas Revolution Anniversary

    Texas celebrates the 100th anniversary of the Texas Revolution
  • Hottest Spot

    The hottest temperature in Texas was 120 degrees in Seymour
  • New Governor

    Texans elect W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel as governor
  • Military Service

    Large numbers of Texans volunteer for military service in World War 2
  • U.S. Supreme Court

    The U.S. Supreme Court declares the Texas white primary unconstitutional
  • Medal of Honor

    Texan Audie Murphy receives the Medal of Honor for stopping a German tank attack in France
  • Automobiles

    More than 3 million automobiles are registered in Texas
  • Allan Shivers

    Allan Shivers successfully runs for a third term as governor
  • driest place

    wink received just 1.76 inches of rain
  • Woman Rights

    Texas woman call for an equal rights amendment to the state constitution
  • Buddy Holly Dead

    Texas musician Buddy Holly is killed in a plane crash
  • Texas Owns Gulf

    The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Texas owns Gulf coastal tidelands up to a 10.35-mile limit
  • timber

    the Texas timber industry earned more than $1.9 billion
  • livestock

    sales of Texas livestock totaled more than $10.8 billoin
  • cotton

    the value of Texas cotton production reached over $1.5 billon
  • money

    texas produced about 730 million barrels of crude oil worth some $55 billion
  • agriculture

    agriculture added $36 billion to the texas economy
  • farms

    there were more than 244,700 farms in texas
  • Electronics

    Texas exports of computers and electronics were worth more than $45 billion