Period 1 Timeline

  • Period: 12,000 BCE to 3500 BCE

    Neolithic Era

    The Neolithic Age began around 12,000 years ago and ended as civilizations started to rise around 3500 BCE. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving.
  • Period: 10,000 BCE to 9000 BCE

    Neolithic Revolution

    The Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. in the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East where humans first took up farming. The Neolithic Era began when some groups of humans gave up the nomadic lifestyle completely to begin farming. It took a lifestyle of gathering wild plants to keeping small gardens and later tending large crop fields.
  • Period: 5400 BCE to 1750 BCE

    Sumerian civilization

    The Sumerians are thought to have formed the first human civilization in world history.They lived in southern Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East. Each city state had its own ruler.There was a ziggurat in the center of each state.They invented the first form of writing, a number system, the first wheeled vehicles,sun-dried bricks, and irrigation for farming. The Akkadians were responsible for the destruction of Mesopotamia's capital city, Ur, around 2,000 BC
  • 3500 BCE

    Mesopotamian city states established

    Mesopotamia is located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers the people who settled in villages in the area were able to develop agriculture. The use of irrigation led to crop surpluses, and this meant that the villages could grow and people could start performing other activities besides growing food. People began specializing in areas such as crafts making and trading. City states were established with rulers.
  • Period: 2200 BCE to 2350 BCE

    Akkadian civilization

    Not much is known about it but according to legend, it was built by the king Sargon the Great (who ruled 2334-2279 BCE) who unified Mesopotamia under the rule of his Akkadian Empire. He maintained order in his empire through repeated military campaigns.The stability provided by this empire gave rise to the construction of roads and improved irrigation. As with the rise of the city of Akkad, its fall is a mystery and all that is known today is gone with it.
  • Period: 1800 BCE to 1500 BCE

    Aryans arrive in Indus River valley

    The Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization.This was a large migration and seen as an invasion,Thus, the Indus Valley Civilization came to an end. Over the course of several centuries, the Aryans gradually settled down and took up agriculture.The language brought by the Aryans gained supremacy over the local languages: Other features of modern Indian society,such as caste division can also be traced back to the times of the Aryan migrations.
  • 1792 BCE

    Hammurabi’s Code

    The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes, proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from 1792 to 1750 B.C. The Hammurabi code of laws, a collection of 282 rules, established standards for commercial interactions and set fines and punishments to meet the requirements of justice. Hammurabi’s Code was carved onto a stone and was stolen by invaders but rediscovered in 1901. It was an example to future societies to write down laws and creeds.
  • Period: 1700 BCE to

    Hebrews establish Israel

    Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel.King David ruled the region around 1000 B.C. His son, who became King Solomon, is credited with building the first holy temple in ancient Jerusalem. In about 931 B.C., the area was divided into two kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1180 BCE

    Hittites get iron and chariots

    The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian (modern-day Turkey) people who formed an empire between 1600-1180 BCE.The Hittites manufactured advanced iron goods,ruled over their kingdom through government officials with independent authority over various branches of government, and worshipped storm gods.The Hittites’ ongoing conflicts with Egypt produced the world’s first known peace treaty.The Hittites split into several city states until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Assyrian Empire.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1046 BCE

    Shang Dynasty

    The first recorded Chinese dynasty.The king appointed local governors, and there was an established class of nobles as well as the masses,whose chief labor was in agriculture.The king issued pronouncements as to when to plant crops, and the society had a highly developed calendar system with a 360-day year of 12 months of 30 days each.The architects of the Shang period built houses of timber over rammed-earth floors, with walls of wattle and daub and roofs of thatch.The Zhou conquered the Shang.
  • Period: 1570 BCE to 1069 BCE

    Height of Egyptian civilization

    Middle-Kingdom Egypt pursued an aggressive foreign policy, colonizing Nubia with its rich supply of gold, ebony, ivory and other resources The kingdom also built diplomatic and trade relations with Syria, Palestine and other countries; undertook building projects including military fortresses and mining quarries; and returned to pyramid-building in the tradition of the Old Kingdom. The 20th Dynasty and the Egyptian Empire - ended with the death of Ramesses XI.
  • 1500 BCE

    Phoenicians create an alphabet

    The Phoenician alphabet developed from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, during the 15th century BC. Before then the Phoenicians wrote with a cuneiform script. The Phoenician alphabet was perhaps the first alphabetic script to be widely-used - the Phoenicians traded around the Mediterraean and beyond, and set up cities and colonies in parts of southern Europe and North Africa - and the origins of most alphabetic writing systems can be traced back to the Phoenician alphabet,
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 400 BCE

    Olmec civilization established in Mesoamerica

    First major civilization in Mexico.The Olmec society lasted from about 1600 BCE to around 350 BCE,when environmental factors made their villages unlivable.The Olmec are probably best known for the statues they carved:20 ton stone heads,quarried and carved to commemorate their rulers.The name Olmec is an Aztec word meaning the rubber people;the Olmec made and traded rubber throughout Mesoamerica.Their culture influenced many later civilizations,like the Maya.The Olmec declined for unknown reason,
  • Period: 1046 BCE to 256 BCE

    Zhou Dynasty

    It was the longest-lasting of ancient China’s dynasties.The most influential minds in the Chinese intellectual tradition flourished under the Zhou like Laozi, Confucius, Mencius and Mozi. They made bronze work,military technology,including horse-drawn chariots, writing,a calendar, and religion. The Zhou Dynasty came to an end during the Warring States period in 256 BCE, when the army of the state of Qin captured the city of Chengzhou and the last Zhou ruler, King Nan, was killed.
  • Period: 1000 BCE to 1100

    Bantus migrate to the east and south

    Between 1000 B.C-1100 A.D.,East Africa experienced a wave of migrations from all throughout Africa. Over a period of 1000 years, groups moved away from their homeland which is now Cameroon. The Bantu,were a class of over 400 ethnic groups who spoke a similar language, and shared common customs.There are a lot of reasons they migrated which includes the drying up of the Sahara grasslands, the constant attacks from stronger neighboring tribes, and rulers wanted to expand their kingdoms for money.
  • Period: 900 BCE to 600 BCE

    Assyrian empire established

    The powerful Assyrian army conquered its enemies city by city,as it excelled in siege warfare as well as battlefield tactics.The final stage of the Assyrian empire began in 745 B.C.When Tiglath Pileser III took the throne.He took over and renovated the whole empire making them even more lethal.Ashurbanipal was the last great Assyrian king.After his reign the huge empire began to fall apart.It had become too large,taxes were too high and entire regions rebelled.The great Assyrian empire was over.
  • Period: 900 BCE to 200 BCE

    Chavin civilization in Andean South America

    The Chavín culture is an extinct, prehistoric civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site. The culture developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BCE to 200 BCE.It extended its influence to other civilizations along the coast. Pottery was often a means of storing surplus food. Chavín art was the first widespread, recognizable artistic style in the Andes Because the Chavín left no written records most of their deeds and actions are gone for now.
  • Period: 626 BCE to 539 BCE

    Nebuchadneszzer rebuilds Babylon

    Nabopolassar had formed his empire through conquest by 616 BCE and Nebuchadnezzar II drew on these resources to strengthen and enlarge his armed forces as well as engage in building projects. When the Canaanite city of Tyre finally fell to a lengthy siege in 585 BCE, Nebuchadnezzar II had consolidated his empire.The walls of Babylon and the Ishtar Gate were considered so impressive that some ancient writers claimed they should have been included on the list of the Seven Wonders.
  • Period: 550 BCE to 330 BCE

    Persian Empire established

    The first Persian Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great around 550 B.C., became one of the largest empires in history, He united under one government three important sites of early human civilization: Mesopotamia, Egypt’s Nile Valley and India’s Indus Valley. They made metalwork, rock carvings, weaving and architecture. The first Persian Empire was shaped by a different religion: Zoroastrianism. The Achaemenid dynasty finally fell to the invading armies of Alexander the Great of Macedon in 330 B.C.
  • Period: 495 BCE to 429 BCE

    Golden Age of Pericles

    The golden age of Athenian culture flourished under the leadership of Pericles. His policies and strategies set the stage for the future. During the 440s and 430s Pericles tapped the league’s treasury to fund vast cultural projects in Athens.Pericles’ social innovations were equally important to the era.He worked to democratize the fine arts by subsidizing theater admission for poorer citizens.In 429 Pericles’ two legitimate sons died of the plague.A few months later, Pericles himself succumbed.
  • Period: 492 BCE to 449 BCE

    Persian Wars (Greeks v. Persians)

    Darius I, King of Persia, decided he wanted to conquer the Greeks in 490 BC. He gathered a vast army of soldiers that outnumbered any army the Greeks could muster.The much larger Persian fleet attacked the small Athenian ships.They.were sure of victory. However, the Athenian ships, called triremes, were fast and maneuverable. They rammed into the sides of the large Persian ships and sunk them. They soundly defeated the Persians causing Xerxes to retreat back to Persia.
  • Period: 2 to 3300 BCE

    Stone Age

    The Stone Age began about 2.6 million years, when researchers found the earliest evidence of humans using stone tools, and lasted until about 3,300 B.C. when the Bronze Age began. Hammer-stones are some of the earliest and simplest stone tools. Prehistoric humans used hammer-stones to chip other stones into sharp-edged flakes. They also used hammer-stones to break apart nuts, seeds and bones and to grind clay into pigment.
  • Period: 2 to 12,000 BCE

    Paleolithic Era

    The Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) makes up the earliest chunk of the Stone Age – the large swathe of time during which hominids used stone to make tools – and ranges from the first known tool use roughly 2,6 million years ago to the end of the last Ice Age c. 12,000 years ago. Migration of humans around the world which led to modern humans today.
  • Period: to 1500

    Indus River civilization in decline

    There is 2 reasons that could be why this happened. First reason is that a nomadic, Indo-European tribe, called the Aryans, suddenly overwhelmed and conquered the Indus River Valley. By using horses and more advanced weapons against the peaceful Harappan people, the Aryans may have easily defeated them. The other reason is that believe the drying of the Saraswati River, which began around 1900 BCE, was the main cause for climate change, while others conclude that a great flood struck the area