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Singapore's Anti-Corruption Program

  • Penal Code of Straits Settlement of Malacca, Penang, and Singapore enacted

    With the enactment of this penal code in 1871, corruption was made illegal. It came into full effect on September 16, 1872.
  • Enactment of the Prevention of Corruption Ordinance

    This ordinance aimed to prevent bribery in public and private business. It was ultimately ineffective because the penalties (2 year imprisonment and S$10,000) were not strong enough to deter offenses and the requirement of warrants also limited the powers of officials to search and investigate those involved.
  • Formation of Anti-Corruption Branch within the Criminal Investigation Department of Police Force

    The branch was a small unit, who would investigate corruption cases. However, they lacked manpower and priority within the Criminal Investigation Department to fully make an effect. In addition, they were themselves plagued by prevalent corruption in the police force.
  • Formation of Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau

    Formation of Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau
    Ineffective during its early years, reforms to the law codes and subsequent acts gave the bureau more power to perform its job effectively.
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    CPIB under Attorney-General's Chambers

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    CPIB under Ministry of Home Affairs, the Prime Minister's Office and the Attorney-General's Chambers

  • Elections for Legislative Assembly

    This year marked Singapore's achievement of self-government.
  • Enactment of Prevention of Corrupton Act

    Revised the previous Prevention of Corruption Ordinance by increasing penalties to 5 years of imprisonment and a fine of S$10,000. It also increased the power of CPIB officers to investigate cases. In addition, one important section detailed an assumption of guilt if no proper explanation could be produced: if an accused is unable to explain his monetary resources and property that seem disproportionate to his sources of income, he or she is assumed guilty of corruption.
  • Full independence

    In 1963, the Singaporean government signed the Malaysia agreement to become part of Malaysia, while maintaining autonomy. However, over time, relations between the two became tense and in August, Singaporean leader Lee Kuan Yew signed a separation agreement.
  • Amendment to Prevention of Corruption Act

    This amendment allowed government officials abroad to be prosecuted for corruption offenses as if they committed those crimes in Singapore.
  • Amendment to Prevention of Corruption Act

    This amendment increased the monetary penalty for corruption offenses from S$10,000 to S$100,000.
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    CPIB under Prime Minister's jurisdiction

    The CPIB remains independent and reports directly to the Prime Minister.
  • Enactment of Corruption (Confiscation fo Benefits) Act

    This act allowed the court to issue orders against deceased defendants.
  • Public Service in the 21st Century (PS21) reforms

    These reforms aimed to increase efficiency of government agencies' services and to reduce bureaucracy and red tape within the government. In addition, reforms aim to take suggestions from the public to maintain a business-friendly environment.
  • Enactment of Corruption, Drug Trafficking and Other Serious Crimes (Confiscation of Benefits) Act

    The court has powers to confiscate unaccounted for properties and monetary resources from those convicted of corruption offenses.
  • Start of e-Government Action Plans (eGAP)

    These plans aim to engage citizens through the use of technology to and to increase convenience and efficiency of online services.
  • Upgrade in CPIB

    The CPIB created a Computer Forensic Unit (an addition to its Computer Information System Unit) to further intelligence gathering abilities.