• Formation of an Independent Italy

    Formation of an Independent Italy
    Through the spread of Risorgimento, nation-states became increasingly worried about their independence from bordering countries. The new kingdom of Italy was proclaimed under the rule of King Emmanuel II; however, Rome maintained its own rule under the Papacy. The picture illustrates the territories unified under Italy and the areas that were ruled under other countries. This is significant to understanding the geography of the area and the importance of Italian unification.
  • Papal States taken over by New Nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by New Nation of Italy
    Following France’s declaration of war on Prussia in the summer of 1870, Napoleon ordered his troops out of Italy and focused on the struggles faced within the Franco-Prussian War. The Italians invaded the Papal States in September 1870. Through the use of force and an election held in October 1870, the Kingdom of Italy annexed the Papal States and Rome. The image illustrates the acquired states and is significant as it allows for the visualization of the territory of the Kingdom of Italy.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adwa

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adwa
    The first Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896 over the disputed Treaty of Wuchale in which the Italians claimed Ethiopia. The Ethiopian army defeated the Italians in the Battle of Adwa which is significant as it secured Ethiopia’s sovereignty and became a symbol for pan-Africanism. This image depicts the land claimed by Italy in the Treaty of Wuchale, and helps visually display the area in which the Ethiopians and Italians were battling for.
  • Italy Invades and Takes Over Libya

    Italy Invades and Takes Over Libya
    Italy claimed Libya as part of its Empire in hopes of expanding and blocking further European influence in Northern Africa. Italy sent an ultimatum in which the Ottomans attempted to negotiate, resulting in Italy declaring war on September 29. The war appeased Italian nationalists after the Battle of Adowa, although Italy obtained few economic gains. This image displays the Regina Marian, an Italian naval ship that was a leading factor in Italy’s ability to obtain western Libya.
  • Mussolini Kicked out of Socialist Party for Pro-Nationalisitc Sentiments

    Mussolini Kicked out of Socialist Party for Pro-Nationalisitc Sentiments
    Mussolini began to support war following the outbreak of WWI as he believed war would bring necessary changes required for political revolution. Although many people in the PSI had similar thoughts, Mussolini voiced his criticism about socialism and its lack of recognizing the problems that led to WWI. Thus, he was fired from Avanti!, kicked out of the PSI, and created his own news source. The image displays Mussolini’s newspaper, II Popoli d’Italia, that he used to promote his new views.
  • Mussolini Begins Work as Editor for the newspaper, Avanti

    Mussolini Begins Work as Editor for the newspaper, Avanti
    Mussolini began writing a variety of socialists papers and founded his own newspaper, La Lotta di Classe, which became so successful that he was appointed the editor of the official socialist newspaper, Avanti! The image displays an article from the newspaper, which was a prominent factor in Mussolini gaining power. Under his time as head editor, the audience population went from 20,000 to 100,000.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    The Treaty of London was a secret treaty between Italy and the allied forces. It brought Italy into WWI on the side of the allies. It promised key cities to Italy in return for entering the war within a month. Despite the great amounts of Italian opposition, Italy joined the war against Austria-Hungary in May 1915. This photo illustrates the lack of power Italy had while negotiating territorial terms with the Allied powers following WWI.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    Mussolini and his supporters founded this Italian Fascist organization following a meeting held in Milan in March of 1919. This ultranationalist organization intended to bring together both nationalist and socialist views while appealing to war veterans, yet began without a clear political orientation. Mussolini served as the leader of the movement throughout its existence. The image illustrates the manifesto of the organization, which was published in Mussolini’s newspaper.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    The Biennio Rosso (“two red years”) was a period in which revolution was imminent. During WWI, unemployment had risen due to a greater demand for men in the military as opposed to in factories. This led to a decrease in the economy and an increase in land stealing, trade unions, and worker strikes. This photo displays factories guarded by the red guards in hopes of deterring workers from creating havoc. This is significant as it highlights the desire to use violoence to create harmony.
  • D'Annunzio takes Fiume

    D'Annunzio takes Fiume
    The Fascio di Combattimento was quickly outshined by the actions of D’Annunzio who took the city of Fiume with 2000 men and little opposition. Fiume was one of the areas Italy desired but did not receive in the post-war negotiations. The actions of D’Annunzio are significant in reference to Mussolini’s actions as Mussolini adopted many of these practices including theatrical trappings and the black shirts. This image displays the great crowd that joined D’Annunzio in taking the city.
  • Mussolini Forms Alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini Forms Alliance with Giolitti
    Mussolini created an alliance with the liberal government in May of 1921. He assured the liberal party, who did not view the fascists as a threat, that there would be no forceful fascist takeover. This alliance is significant as it provided Mussolini with a great opportunity to spread his influence. Pictured is Giovanni Giolitti, the prime minister of Italy who seemed to welcome fascist support and tolerate fascist policies in late 1920 such as the squadristi, which increased fascist strength.
  • Mussolini Forms the PNF (Fascists Party) and is Elected its Leader

    Mussolini Forms the PNF (Fascists Party) and is Elected its Leader
    October 1921 Mussolini convinced members of the fascio de combattimento to change the organization into PNF political party. November 1921, Mussolini then became elected leader of the Fascist National Congress. This photo is the representation of the PNF party and its significance with the stability of the structure with the machetty.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini Becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini Becomes Prime Minister
    Providing Mussolini an ultimatum, the Ras was going to march on Rome with or without him and aquire power. They took over town halls, telephone exchanges, railways, and lands of Northern Italy. Due to this, King offered four cabinets post Rome Mussolini rejected, and then became Prime Minister instead on Oct 29, 1922. This articulates the events that occured in rome.
  • Acerbo Law Passed

    Acerbo Law Passed
    Laws that were passed to allow a majority party within the Italian Parliament in 1923 created by Baron Giacomo. This enabled the Fascist Party to take much control of Italy and maintain a hold within politics for the evental take over of Mussolini. This illustrates the extent of the laws
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    Diplomatic and military chaos between greece and italy started by an italian general trying to resolve boarder issues between greece and albania and ended up being murdered. Mussolini then issued an ultiamtum to greece that was not accepted causing him to bring forces to Corfu This demonstrates the extent of war that was created with Mussolini's forces.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    Mussolini's involvement in Corfu created oppositions to boycott parliament with leadership of Armendola. Attempt to force the King to dismiss Mussolini. The king ended up instead blaming opposition for behavior against the constitution. The major representatives of the Adventine Secession.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Giacomo Matteotti despised the violence of fascism and the election corruption. Matteotti was abuducted on June 10th in Rome. Many believed he was taken by fasicst causing a decrease in Mussolini support. This picture represents Matteotti himself.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    Autarchy. Being self-sufficient. Mussolini wanted to keep all production of grain in Italy. Creation of Kellogg-Brand combatted resources, workers, and economic issues, however, exports for cattle decreased. Lira increase increases Italian export prices, people not wanting them. Heavy misallocation of resources. The picture represents the immense amount of grain that was at the forefront of all production within Italy and how many people's world and standard of living revoled around it.
  • Locarno Treaty Signed

    Locarno Treaty Signed
    7 agreements negotiated in Locarno, Switzerland and officially signed in London on Dec 1st. Treaty intended to guarantee Germany's frontier from boardering states and return to a portion of normalcy within Europe after WWI. The major powers behing the Locarno Treaty within Europe, noticing how Italy is not one of them.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    Mussolini's attempt to increasing population by advocating people to have more kids. The more kids a person had, the less taxes they had to pay and the more incentives they got. Women not instructed or encouraged to work, however 1/3 of workforce was them. The population actually decreased after this as well. This also did not account for immigration issues. The photo shows the amount of pressure women had by the government to become a feeding ground soliders. Being used for their reproduction
  • Battle for Land and Battle for Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for Lira
    Italy needed better currency so they could boost up their economy to become a bigger power globally. They also needed more resource rich land, making Mussolini push for Austrian land. Mussolini recreated Lira to try and become economically and industrially sound. This caused deflation, class divide, South and North divide, and money not valued. The picture is of a Lira coin. This is significant as it validates the immense amount being made and deflation that was hurting the economy and people.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    International agreement where signatory states promised not to use war to resolve disputes and conflicts. However, was not effective in its aims due to it not stopping WWII nor decreasing militraism within the signed countries. Kellog Treaty itself
  • Lateran Treaty with the Pope

    Lateran Treaty with the Pope
    Treaty that recongized Vatican City as its own independent state within Italy. Mussolini compensated the Roman Catholic Church for loss of states. This treaty enabled the Catholic church to not have a political party in Italian politics allowing Mussolini to take more control. The major powers of the treaty signing it.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    A diplomatic agreement between Mussolini, British PM MacDonald, and French PM Flandin about the looming threat of Germany's violations of the Treaty of Versailles. This agreement worked to reestablish the policies of the Locarno Treaty and distract Europe from Italy's upcoming invasion of Abssynia. This photo was chosen because it shows the major world powers that were involved in the negotiations of this treaty: Mussolini, Flandin, MacDonald, Laval.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    A conflict between Italy and modern-day Ethiopia about border locations between the two territories. In this event, Italy left the League of Nations to pursue this fight, which served to weaken the credibility of the organization. This photo was chosen because of its relevance to the feud between Italy and the League of Nations, displaying the European public's distaste for the lack of action against the Italian invasion of Abyssinia, and the organization's issues.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty Signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty Signed
    An agreement between Italy and Germany, effectively linking the two fascist countries together. This was an alliance between both nations, which promised each other support in the event of a war. This photo was chosen because it displays the pact between Italy's Mussolini and Germany's Hitler. It also represents their shared political ideology and like-mindedness in leadership.
  • Italian Involvement in Spanish Civil War

    Italian Involvement in Spanish Civil War
    Following Italy's successful invasion of Abyssinia, the nation was interested in expanding its fascist ideology further into Europe. Its goal was to defend the Spanish's nationalist cause, leading to the establishment of Francisco Franco. This photo was chosen to represent the opposing view to this invasion, as this poster illustrates the fear of fascism creeping into Spain at the hand of the Italians.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    A negotiation by Great Britain, Germany, France, and Italy, that allowed for the German annexation of western Czechoslovakia. This annexation of land was dependent on the idea of self-determination from WWI, and the German's desire to be reunited with their motherland.
    This photo illustrates the key figures involved in the Munich Conference. This is significant as it displays the growing prominence of important fascist leaders in Europe, and other world leaders' willingness to cooperate together
  • Italy Invades Albania

    Italy Invades Albania
    An offensive attack by Italy against Albania for strategic port cities and access to the Balkans. This invasion forced the country to become a protectorate of Italy, and allowed Italy full control of the Adriatic Sea's entrance. This photo was chosen to depict the land gained by Italy in the invasion. This is relevant as it displays the massive increase in the territory of the nation, and its expansion of fascist ideology further into the rest of the world.
  • Italy Enters WWII on the Side of Germany

    Italy Enters WWII on the Side of Germany
    Itlay began their involvement in the war by declaring war on France, in assistance of the German's attack on Paris. This declaration was the result of the Pact of Steel, previously agreed upon by the two nations. This photo was chosen to display the relationship between Mussolini and Germany both during and prior to WWII. WIthout their alliance in the case of war, there would be much less involvement in Hitler's rise to power, and WWII in general.
  • Mussolini Brought Down by Coup in WWII

    Mussolini Brought Down by Coup in WWII
    The fall of the fascist regime. Mussolini was voted out of power by the Grand Council of Fascism and King VIctor Emmanuel II. Mussolini was subsequently placed under arrest, which was met with happiness by the Italian public. This photo was chosen to depict the general contentedness about the fall of the fascist regime. News publications, like this one, were happy to see the end of Mussolini's dictatorship, in favor of a more democratic government for Italy.
  • Mussolini Killed

    Mussolini Killed
    Mussolini was executed in a small village in Northern Italy, by a self-claimed communist, Walter Audisio. This event marked the end of the fascist dictatorship in Italy.
    This photo was chosen to illustrate the gruesome death of Mussolini at the hand of his people, and the general distaste for the fascist government in Italy. The hanging of the bodies in such a manner displays the utter contempt of the man.