mussolini + italy

By ikagai
  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    A parliament of all of Italy besides for Rome and Venetia, agreed on unifying Italy with Victor Emmanuel II as their first king. The Franco-Austrian war of 1859 began the physical process of Italian unification. The Austrians were defeated by the French and Piedmontese at Magenta and Solferino, relinquishing Lombardy that was later added to the holdings. The picture shows the specific territories that were added to unify Italy.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    The French was the main barrier to Italians gaining the Papal states after 1876, but after being occupied with the Franco-Prussian War, the Napoleon III ordered his troops out of the Italian peninsula, which gave way for Italians to enter the Papal States and annex the territory into the new kingdom of Italy. The picture shows Papal states before and after it was annexed.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    Traditional warriors, farmers, and pastoralists defeated a well-rounded Italian army in the northern town of Adwa in Ethiopia. The outcome of this battle ensured Ethiopia's independence, making it the only African country to never be colonized. Adwa turned Ethiopia into a symbol of freedom for African Americans globally. The picture depicts the Battle of Adowa between Ethiopians and Italians.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    Italian troops invaded the Turkish province of Libya, initiating the Italo-Turkish War. When Turkey refused to respond to an ultimatum calling for Italian military occupation to protect Italian interests in the region, Italy declared war. In the end, it resulted with Italian victory and Libya (provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica) was later annexed. The picture shows a map of Italian territorial gains carved up on Libya
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    Mussolini had begun his work at a young age, writing in a wide variety of socialist papers in which he later founded his own, La Lotta di Classe. His work was recognized and he was appointed an editor for the official Socialist paper, Avanti, where he advocated his excitement of socialist ranks and a revolution against Italy. The picture clearly shows Mussolini being involved with the famous socialist newspaper, Avanti.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI
    Mussolini was kicked from the Socialist Party for advocating military intervention in WW1, in opposition to the party’s stance on neutrality. After being expelled for favoring Italy’s entrance to the war, he centered his views on Italian nationalism instead of socialism, leading his way into finding fascism. The picture shows the representation of the Italian Socialist Party that Mussolini was part of.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    The Treaty of London was a secret treaty between neutral Italy and the Allied forces of Britain, France, and Russia to bring Italy into WW1. The Entente powers wanted Italy’s participation mainly because of their shared border with Austria. Italy later signed the treaty as they were promised territories such as Trieste, southern Tyrol, and northern Dalmatia, despite the nation’s opposition. The picture outlines the territories that Italy were later promised by the Entente for joining WWII.
  • Biennio Rosso

    Biennio Rosso
    Biennio Rosso, also referred to as the Red Years, was a revolutionary period post world war, of social conflict in Italy. Strikes, factory occupations and land occupations swept across Italy with unemployment rising to over 2 million in 1919. This unstable time period allowed socialists to seize control of the government, resulting in many to view it as incompetent. The picture details the strikes and anger from the many laborers and workers in Italy during Red Years.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

     Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    118 people from varying political backgrounds came together in Milan to form unity between different Arditi groups and also bring together socialists and nationalists. The founders of the Fascio di Combattimento or “fighting group” were known as Fascists of the First Hour and they, along with other members, created the June 6th Fascist Programme which combined demands from both the left and right wings. The picture shows the Fasces' manifesto from Il Popolo d'Italia
  • D’Annunzio takes Fium

    D’Annunzio takes Fium
    Following the loss of Fiume in negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference, D’Annunzio led 2000 armed men to the city and took over rule for the next 15 months in open defiance of the Italian government and Allies. This made him a hero to nationalists and an inspiration for Mussolini. The picture shows a map of the "Italian Regency of Carnaro"
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    The National Blocs was an electoral alliance offered by prime minister Giovanni Giolitti to Mussolini for the May 1921 national elections due to his opposition toward socialists. As a result, while not winning the majority, Mussolini did win 7% of the vote and 35 seats. Most importantly, he became a deputy and all 35 fascist deputies were from the right-wing of his movement. The picture shows the symbol for the National Blocs.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    In order to drop more radical left-wing elements from the Fascist Programme, in October Mussolini used persuasion to reform the Fascio di Combattimento into the Partito Nazional Fascista and later in November, he also persuaded them to elect him leader. This was done through the promise of ending the Pact of Pacification and having all branches assemble action squads. The picture shows a party emblem of the National Fascist Party
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    Ras created ultimatum regarding demand for a shift from local power to national power: march and seize Rome w/ or w/o Mussolini. To appease his supporters + intimidate the liberal government, he agreed and a plan was made (take over major cities and then converge on Rome). The king surprisingly chose to do nothing -> led to the angry resignation of his prime minister + Mussolini became the new PM after a nomination from the conservative Salandra. The picture shows Mussolini's growing influence.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    To further strengthen his power, Mussolini had Giacomo Acerbo, his under-secretary of state, outline a new electoral law that would give ⅔ of parliaments seats to the party/alliance that won at least 25% of votes. He used intimidation and threats like abolishing Parliament to have it passed in July 1923, although most Populari deputies abstained. The picture shows a visual summary of the April 1924 Chamber of Deputies election under the Acerbo Law
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    An Italian general was killed on Greek land while mapping the area, a situation Mussolini used to ask Greece for an apology and monetary compensation. When they refused to pay the 50 million lire, he invaded their island of Corfu, forcing them to pay the money. Many Italians saw Mussolini as a national hero following the event. The picture shows the location of dispute, Corfu Island.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    After openly condemning fascist violence and corruption, Giacomo Matteotti was abducted + killed in Rome, presumably by Dumini fascist thugs. This greatly affected Mussolini's popularity + despite denying involvement, many distanced from fascism. Even after Dumini was arrested by Mussolini’s orders + found guilty of the charges, the press continued to hint at Mussolini’s involvement. A political cartoon of the event shows the disdain for the opposition.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    Socialist, communists, and radical Popolari opposition deputies boycotted parliament under the leadership of Giovanni Amendola after the evidence of Mussolini’s involvement in the murder of Giacomo Matteotti, a well-respected socialist who had intentions of releasing evidence of fascist corruption in the election. The goal of the boycott was to pressure the king to dismiss Mussolini. The picture shows socialist legislators on their way to Quartarella to identify Matteotti's body
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    A campaign launched by Mussolini because of a poor harvest and subsequent increase in grain imports. The purpose was to grow more cereals to reduce a dependency on foreign imports. Import controls were imposed, additional land was made accessible for farming grain by plowing up land previously used for pastures, orchards, and vinyards, and productive farmers were awarded. The picture shows a propaganda photo of Mussolini aiding farmers to transport grain.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

    Locarno Treaty signed
    Series of treaties that were drawn up in Locarno, Switzerland and signed in London. One of the treaties was a mutual guarantee between Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, France, and Italy that was meant to ensure peace in western Europe. The signatories agreed to settle conflicts with pacific means. The picture shows the negotiating table for the Locarno Treaties
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    Battle for Land started bc additional efforts to increase available farmland. Marshes and swamps were drained -> allowed many small farms to be established. Financed by public funds and created jobs for the unemployed. Battle for Lira restored the value of the Lira (and also to heighten Italian prestige) -> allowing Italy to continue importing coal and iron for shipbuilding and armaments. Plowed farmland representing Mussolini’s efforts to expand agricultural production by expanding farmland
  • Battle for Births

     Battle for Births
    Launched to increase Italian population to make a large army for future endeavours. Fascists encouraged women to marry young + not to work, offered maternity benefits + gave jobs to married fathers before single men. Women who had the most children in each province were given prizes. Taxation policy made it so that bachelors had to pay more taxes, whereas couples with six or more children paid none. Many infants in an Italian hospital, representing the Battle’s efforts to increase birth rate.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    An agreement with the purpose of outlawing war; an international effort to prevent another large war like WWII. The signatories were France, the US, the UK, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Belgium, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Japan, and Italy. It was not very effective, and Italy was one of the nations who threatened the agreement. The picture shows world leaders gathered to sign the pact in Paris.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

     Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Ended the conflicts between the Italian government and the papacy. Govt. accept papal sovereignty over Vatican City, pope would formally recognize Italian state + its possession of Rome + states formerly owned by the papacy, Roman Catholicism = official state religion, the clergy’s salaries = paid by the state, the state could veto the appointment of politically hostile bishops, clergy ≠ join political parties, divorce needs Church consent Benito Mussolini and Pietro Gasparri signing the treaty
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    The crisis resulted from Italy’s aggressive imperialist policy against Ethiopia. It was Italy’s second attempt to seize Ethiopia, causing a second Italian-Ethiopian War and marking Italy’s withdrawal from the League of Nations. The picture shows the loss of land Ethiopia would face and gives perspective on why conflict arose.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    Agreement between French Prime Minister Pierre-Étienne Flandin & Pierre Laval, British PM Ramsay MacDonald, and Mussolini with the purpose of reaffirming the Locarno Agreements. The signatories agreed to resist Germany’s potential attempts of changing the Treaty of Versailles. The front broke down within 2-3 months. The picture shows Pierre Laval, Benito Mussolini, Ramsay MacDonald, Pierre-Etienne Flandin on the final day of the conference.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

     Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    An informal agreement linking Italy and Germany in a coalition. It promised to serve each other in war, which was a main reason in the structure of WWII. The picture shows the alliance between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

     Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    The Italian government signs a secret treaty with Spanish nationalists to exchange military aid for military base development. Mussolini sent numerous warcraft to Spain as a result, directly contradicting the Non-Intervention Agreement signed two months prior. The picture shows propaganda used to promote Italian intervention in Spain.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    An agreement signed by Germany, the UK, the French third Republic, and Italy, which allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland. The agreement was made in order to prevent another European war, but ultimately gave Germany power over Central Europe and they rose again to become a great European power. The picture shows a mutual agreement and the beginnings of Germany’s rise in power → now in equal standing to the other great European powers.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    Like the Abyssinian Crisis, Italy invaded Albania because of conflict that arose from Italy’s aggressive imperialist policies. It ended in Italian success, as the country became a part of Italy. The picture shows Italy’s strategy to invade Albania + reveals it’s efficacy
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    Italy signs the Tripartite Pact, which allies them with Germany in WW1. Italy saw that France was on the cusp of being defeated in the Battle of France, so, thinking the end of war was near, they decided to side with Germany in order to be a part of the “winning side”. The cartoon depicts Italy as a follower of Germany, merely riding along to gain the benefits (their resources not being very helpful).
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII
    Mussolini is voted out of power by his own council because they believed the dictatorship caused military failure for Italy. Immediately after he was removed from power, he was arrested. Picture Justification: Mussolini’s mugshot reveals the loss of power and complete lack of disdain for rule (loss of influence).
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    Mussolini and his mistress are executed by an Italian partisan group. They were captured during their attempts to flee to Switzerland, despite being effectively powerless in government. The utter resentment towards Mussolini (to the point of complete disrespect after his death) is exemplified by the news headline.