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Brazilian Military Government/Dictatorship - An overview

  • Period: to

    Presidency of João Goulart (Jango)

    Important context: due to the Cold War currently happening, the social-politic environment in Brazil was facing a very delicate situation. The country being a part of the capitalist bloc, the socialist social movements are parades were not well seen by most of the population, and that raised up a tension. And among that tension, was João Goulart, that had some tendencies to the left ideology in his presidency.
  • Creation of the Military Junta

    Leaded by the General Artur da Costa e Silva, decreed AI-1.
  • Comício da Central rally

    This rally was where Jango defended the government reformations he desired to fulfill, called Reformas de Base (Base Reformations). They were seen by the population as social-left based reformations, and by that time, seen negatively.
  • March of the Family with God for Liberty

    March of the Family with God for Liberty
    As a response to Jango’s Reformas de Base, this massive popular manifestation happened, that demanded the president’s resignation. Photo taken from: https://oglobo.globo.com/brasil/50-anos-depois-conservadores-tentam-reeditar-marcha-da-familia-com-deus-pela-liberdade-11918175
  • Marines Rebellion (in Guanabara)

    Marines Rebellion (in Guanabara)
    The Marines were favorable to Jango, since they believed better work and living conditions needed to be setup. This is where this rebellion took place.
    After the incident, Jango “softened” the whole situation, what was taken as a disrespect to the Brazilian military army. Photo taken from: https://cpdoc.fgv.br/producao/dossies/Jango/artigos/AConjunturaRadicalizacao/A_revolta_dos_marinheiros
  • Jango’s last speech in his presidency

    The president seemed vary upset that the ideas of the reformations were not being well received by the population, and his speech made that very clear at that time, what was specifically dangerous to happen.
    Adding some more context, the conflict Capitalism—Socialism in Latin America was made real in Brazil by the influence with socialist countries, like Cuba, and the pressure of the capitalist bloc, mainly the US. Many changes in the national army happened as a fruit of that pressure.
  • Popeye Operation

    Popeye Operation
    The displacement of army from Minas Gerais to Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to overthrow Jango’s government, got known as Popeye Operation. That made him go back to the capital, Brasília, hoping to receive assistance from the Congress, something that he didn’t receive. Jango, then, turned to the South, expecting support from the Southern army. Photo taken from: https://cliohistoriaeliteratura.com/2020/03/31/operacao-popeye-hoje-na-historia/
  • The Presidency chair became vacant

    Even though it was known that João Goulart had traveled to the South, rumors spread by the Congress that he had fled from Brazil took their place in making the presidency chair vacant. Jango was backstabbed.
  • Extinction and burning down of the UNE

    Extinction and burning down of the UNE
    UNE’s (União Nacional dos Estudantes - National Union of Students) extinction and burning down came as sign of rebuke the military had on the social-left at that time, since most of UNE’s members had socialist-communist tendencies. Photo from: https://www.une.org.br/secoes-praia/fotos/
  • Jango flees to Uruguay

  • Period: to

    Presidency of Ranieri Mazzilli

    Previously the President of the Chamber of Deputies, R. Mazzilli assumes the Presidential chair for two weeks.
  • Military Government/Dictatorship begins.

  • Implementation of the AI-1

    AI-1 (Ato Institucional no1 - Institutional Act 1) determined that:
    • The government could cancel the political rights of whoever did not agree with the military regiment;
    • The Constitution would be suspended for 6 months;
    • The next presidents would not be voted by the population, rather than by an internal voting in the Congress.
  • Presidency of H. Castello Branco begins

    Presidency of H. Castello Branco begins
    Castello Branco assumes the presidency with the promise that the military government would be something meant to be temporary. However, one of his partners, Costa e Silva, did not agree that much with him, and the same happened with others within the government.
  • Period: to

    Presidency of Humberto Castello Branco

  • Elections for State Governors

    Popular elections were still happening for all the other political positions.
    In this election, that took place in 11 states, the military candidates won in only 6 of those, result that was far from satisfying to the army.
  • Implementation of the AI-2

    AI-2:
    • Political parties made illegal; Extinction of all currently existent political parties and rise of ARENA (military-right) and MDB (social-left) parties.
  • Implementation of the AI-3

    AI-3:
    • Elections for Governors would happen internally and indirectly, through State Representatives. New elections were took place, now bringing the desired candidates by the army in power.
    The population was more and more agitated.
  • Bombing at Guararapes Airport, in Recife

    This bombing was an assassination attempt, aimed at Artur da Costa e Silva, minister of the army and presidential sucessor, that had very extreme ideologies. The act was seen as a popular rebellion.
  • Implementation of the AI-4

    AI-4:
    • New Constitution implemented in Brazil.
  • National Security Law

    It decreed that the military had authority and power to arrest anyone who they believed would be against the regiment.
  • Period: to

    Araguaia Guerrilla War

    Conflict against the government. Fought by the guerrilla founded by communists militants, and being started in the rural area, since the pressure by the military in the urban areas was severely strong.
    With its main phase being from 1972 to 1974, there was around a hundred of guerrilla fighters against around two thousands of soldiers from the army.
  • Presidency of Artur da Costa e Silva begins

    Presidency of Artur da Costa e Silva begins
  • Period: to

    Presidency of A. Costa e Silva

  • Politic persecution increases

    With more and more protests and manifestations happening, the government of Costa e Silva started to face social attacks. The Students Movement gained power and influence when musicians and other artists also began to speak up through their art against the oppression happening.
    The military fought strictly all forms of protest.
  • Márcio Moreira Alves speech

    Márcio Moreira Alves speech
    Early in that September, the politician and journalist Márcio Moreira Alves gave a speech that encouraged the population to boycott the Brazilian Independence Parade (Sep, 7th), as an act of resistance against the military government and dictatorship.
    Photo: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1rcio_Moreira_Alves
  • Period: to

    Economic Miracle

    It corresponds to the economic growth Brazil had from 1968 to 1974.
    Inflation went down and GDP went up for the first time in years at that time.
  • Edson Luís case

    Edson Luís case
    After the assassination of the teenage student Edson Luís by the military police, many manifestations and riots emerged. Photo: https://www.wikiwand.com/pt/Edson_Lu%C3%ADs_de_Lima_Souto
  • Bloody Friday, Rio de Janeiro

    Bloody Friday, Rio de Janeiro
    Protesting in order to denounce the violence from the police when dealing with the population, more than 20 people were killed by the military police at the end of the day.
    Photo: https://pt.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexta-feira_sangrenta#/media/Ficheiro%3AManifesta%C3%A7%C3%A3o_estudantil_contra_a_Ditadura_Militar_476.tif
  • Implementation of the AI-5

    AI-5:
    • Police and Army did not need a court order to apprehend someone.
    • Habeas Corpus extinct Resulted in many imprisonments, the same way as in many country escapees.
    (Ironically enough, that day was a Friday, the 13th)
  • Adhemar de Barros’ bank robbery

    Adhemar de Barros’ bank robbery
    As a riot, the armed-left (strongly and consistently fighting against the military dictatorship) invaded and robbed the personal bank of Adhemar de Barros, Governor of the State of São Paulo at the time. They were able to steal US$2.5 million.
    Photo: https://history.uol.com.br/historia-geral/como-foi-o-roubo-do-cofre-do-adhemar-de-barros
  • Presidency of Emílio Garrastazu Médici begins

    Presidency of Emílio Garrastazu Médici begins
  • Period: to

    Presidency of E. G. Médici

    This era is known until today as the bloodiest and with most censorship in Brazil’s history.
  • Carlos Marighella’s death

    Carlos Marighella’s death
    Carlos Marighella was an icon among the left, politician, writer and guerrilla fighter. He was known by the name “Enemy of the Dictatorship”. In November, 1969, he was brutally assassinated and his death resulted in many rebellions and subtle attackts in São Paulo.
    Photo: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Marighella#/media/File%3AMarighella_foto3_deputado_46-47_apeerj_(cropped).jpg
  • Anos de Chumbo (Years of Lead)

    Anos de Chumbo (Years of Lead)
    During the years Médici was the president, the numbers of people that went “missing” (captured, tortured and killed) skyrocketed.
    It is estimated that around 20 thousand people were tortured, out of those around 400 being killed or gone missing. Photo: https://revistagalileu.globo.com/Sociedade/Historia/noticia/2020/03/os-anos-de-chumbo-livro-relembra-horrores-da-ditadura-militar.html
  • Censorship in the News

    Following the many imprisonments, secret tortures and assassinations afilliated with the government happened, everything the Press would have written about it would be censored by the army. Pages in the newspaper would either show blank spaces, or even full pages covered by assorted cooking recipes or literary poems.
  • Buildings during the Economic Miracle

    Buildings during the Economic Miracle
    The Economic Miracle was established by the building of great industries and roadways. An example of that would be the Ponte Rio-Niterói (Bridge Rio-Niterói), that connected the two cities Rio de Janeiro and Niterói.
    Photo: https://www.todamateria.com.br/milagre-economico/
  • Period: to

    Presidency of E. Geisel

    His presidency started the government’s walk towards the end of the military regiment. Being his right-hand, Geisel had Golbery, an intellectual and well-instructed man. Was firmly against Costa e Silva’s beliefs.
    Golbery was the founder of the SNI, which would be the Brazilian CIA. He standed right by and supported Geisel in initiating the reopening of the Brazilian Politics.
  • Journalist Vladimir Herzog is tortured and killed

    Journalist Vladimir Herzog is tortured and killed
    Herzog was torture and killed by the DOI-CODI, organization affiliated with the Brazilian military force, that when notified his death, claimed it was a suicide.
    This was considered a strong turn-point in the walk of Brazil’s re-democratization, as countries all around the world (specially the US) also began to go to the streets and manifest the desire for justice. Photo: https://library.brown.edu/create/wecannotremainsilent/biographies/vladimir-herzog/
  • Geisel fires the DOI-CODI’s leader and the 2nd Army’s General

    As a response to the previous incidents, Geisel decides to fire the DOI-CODI’s leader and also the General Ednardo D’Ávila Mello, that was in charge of the 2nd Army, one of the most important nation-wide, that had its headquarters in São Paulo.
  • Initiation to Brazil’s re-democratization process

    This process had its official initiation after two incidents:
    1. Extinctions of the AIs and laws that were against the Constitution;
    2. The discharge of Silvio Frota, strong and popular among the military as a candidate to the Presidency after Geisel.
  • Political Reformation

    With the extinction of ARENA and MDB, new political parties had open doors to rise. The Politics scenario was opening up.
  • Presidency of João Figueiredo begins

    Presidency of João Figueiredo begins
  • Period: to

    Presidency of João Figueiredo

    This was the last presidential term of the Military Government in Brazil.
  • Law of Amnesty is approved

    Amnesty to all that were imprisoned under the accusation of political crime, to those that had their rights taken away by the government.
  • Governor and Representatives popular elections

    For the first time since 1960, the people had an election they could vote for.
    Most of the winners throughout the country were from political parties that opposed the military regiment.
  • Period: to

    Diretas Já (Direct Now) Movement

    Along with the Governor and Representatives election, the population went on protesting in favor of having Presidential direct elections right away.
  • Direct Elections project presented (but not approved)

    Representative Dante de Oliveira presents his constitutional amendment project, which would guarantee the popular direct election for president to happen. Even though the project not approved, the end of the Dictatorship was not postponed.
  • Tancredo Neves is elected President

    Tancredo Neves is elected President
    The final elections in the historic period had as candidates Tancredo Neves and Paulo Maluf, and neither were a part of the military. As the Congress voted, Tancredo was elected and the Military Government and Dictatorship had come to an official end. Photo: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tancredo_Neves
  • Ending of the Military Government/Dictatorship